Day1

  • Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran
  • Title:Psychometric Attributes of The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Patients With Non-specific Chronic Neck Pain in Iran.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Neck pain is one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal problems and is considered one of the
main causes of disability that imposes huge economic burden on healthcare systems. Especially
at chronic stage, neck pain affects the physical and mental health, quality of life, socioeconomic
status of the affected people and their families in a negative way. The chronicity of pain
particularly in a region with such vast connection to the nervous system can possibly result in
exaggerated or even improper sensation of pain (e.g. hyperalgesia or allodynia) which in turn,
can lead to inaccurate diagnosis and unsuccessful treatment approaches. This could be one of the
reasons for high rate of failed cervical spine surgeries reported in literatures.
While most medical and rehabilitative interventions usually tend to approach this problem in a
more biological way (e.g. Pathoanatomical approach, Kinesiopathological approach or
Pathokinesiological approach), the role of psychosocial parameters in the process of
rehabilitation cannot be neglected in terms of both symptom intensity and treatment efficacy,
especially due to chronic nature of the problem. In other words, in order to get the best treatment
efficacy, we need to consider psychological factors such as self-efficacy, social support, mood,
coping strategies, and illness perception as influential factors in addition to other related factors
like pain intensity and physical factors.
In 2006, Broadbent et al. designed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) which
measures the following eight components of illness perception: consequences, timeline, personal
control, treatment control, identity, concern, coherence, and emotional responses.
It has been proven that illness perception is highly correlated with adherence to treatment and
also the quality of life. Since the perception of illness in different cultural and social conditions
can be different, and also it has a significant role in adopting coping strategies and chronicity of
pain, the study of the illness perception is necessary for obtaining good assessment and treatment
results.
Biography:
Mohammadali Shakoorianfard is an MSc student in the field of Physical Therapy in Iran
University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Although his main line of research is Diabetic
Foot/Diabetic Ulcer, he also has authorship of 3 books about gait analysis, the role of hydration
in military personnel and Ultrasound in Physical Therapy as well as co-authorship of 2
publications regarding psychological aspects of chronic pain.

  • Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, India
  • Title:Vitamin D3 Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Rescues Motor, Neuromuscular Coordination and Spatial Memory Dysfunction in 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease.
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Abstract:
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the selective loss
of medium spiny neurons which lead to cognitive and motor impairment. A coordinated neuronal
network between cortex and the basal ganglia is required for normal motor function, which gets
severely impaired in Huntington’s disease (HD). In particular, the selective loss of medium spiny
neurons in the striatum is considered as a prime brain region responsible for movement disability
observed in HD. In this regard, we explored the effect of high Vitamin D3 (500 IU; VD)
supplementation in HD animals which were induced with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 75mg/kg) as
described previously (Fernagut et al., 2002). Whether Vitamin D3 exerts its neuroprotective role via
VDR thereby targeting other genes like nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic
factor (BDNF) which mainly involves cell survival signal pathways was also explored. Also, we
checked the antioxidant effect of VD by quantifying the gene expression levels of key anti-oxidant
enzymes (superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GpX) and catalase (Cat) in striatal
tissues in the presence and absence of VD supplementation in HD mice. Overall, our current study
infers that Vitamin D3 may rescue the survival of striatal medium spiny neurons and acts as a
neuroprotective agent in mouse model of HD by inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing the
expression of neurotrophins.
Biography:
I am presently working as an Assistant Professor in Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences (BITSPilani)-Hyderabad, in the department of biology since November 2017. I earned my M.S-PhD degree
in neurosciences from University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, in 2015, where I explored the
role of immune proteins in modulating neuronal excitability in the mammalian brain. During my
graduate studies in Victoria, I was recipient of a number of graduate fellowship award and travel award.
I did my postdoctoral research training in Mike Salter’s group at the hospital of sick children, Toronto,
where I was a recipient of an independent postdoctoral fellowship award called “Restracomp”. A year
later I joined David Stellwagen’s group at McGill, Quebec, where I explored the role of cytokine in
Huntington’s disease and provided training to graduate and undergraduate students. Recently, I
received travel grant award (2019) and early career award (2020) from international brain research
organization (IBRO). I am the sole expert in the present institute who procured Department of
Biotechnology, India builder grant (central funding agency) and will establish electrophysiology
central facility in BITS-Hyderabad campus-2021. I am also exploring the field of “neuronanosciences”, where we are utilizing up-conversion nanoparticle bio-conjugation for magnetic
resonance imaging application. Altogether, I have 12 international publications, 20 conferences
abstracts. I have mentored 14 undergraduate student’s thesis, 4 post-graduate student’s thesis and
currently mentoring two PhD students.

  • University of Concepción, Chile
  • Title:Covered-Stent Treatment of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a 3 Years-Old Child with 12-years Follow-up. Case Report.
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Abstract:
Introduction: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms in children, although uncommon, are life-threatening. Covered stents are a good alternative treatment, as they avoid the risk of open surgery and preserve the internal carotid artery. Long- term outcomes were unknown until recently. Report: In August 2008, a 3-years-old child was treated with a covered stent for a pseudoaneurysm in the extracranial ICA. A long-term follow up is presented. Results: The child was discharged with full recovery and without neurological sequelae. He has been followed-up and has remained asymptomatic for 12 years, with CTA- confirmed internal carotid artery patency, without deformation or evidence of significant re- stenosis. Conclusion: This the first report of the long-term outcome of a covered stent in a child treated at 3 years of age, with a 12-year follow-up. The good performance of the covered stent in this case reinforces its adoption as a first-line option in the treatment of extracranial ICA pseudoaneurysms in children.
Biography:
Prof. Roberto Sánchez, MD Professor of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine- University of Concepción- CHILE Fellow of the American College of Surgeons
Ancien Resident Etranger des Hopitaux de Paris
Membre Asociee Etranger Société de Chirurgie Vasculaire et Endovasculaire de Langue Francaise (SCVE)
Non-european Membership European Society of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (ESVS)

  • Tohoku University, Japan
  • Title:Neurobiopsychosocial Understanding in Human Spontaneous Motor Tempo.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Tempo, rhythm, or speed is a central characteristic of human behaviors. We express it through specific motor-related actions such as walking, exercising, or speaking, and less particular activities such as thinking, memorizing, or learning. For each dimension, we may function with our natural/internal tempo, that is, the speed we may prefer most and at which we are best able to process incoming information spontaneously with the least effort. Such internal preference may reflect our ongoing spontaneous thoughts/minds, cardiorespiratory fitness, and intrinsic brain functioning; however, the scientific evidence is still lacking, while the functional meaning and the brain sources responsible for it remain unclear. In this work, I will show you: 1) how do we study spontaneous motor tempo in the lab with delicate engineering device, electrophysiological recording, and state-of-the-art brain imaging techniques; further 2) how the human brain represents and generates spontaneous motor tempo; then 3) what are the functional meaning of individual natural tempo preference. Finally, 4) how our findings may gate the neurobiopsychosocial understanding of physical and mental health, thus facilitate clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, etc.
Biography:
Sai Sun graduated and received her Ph.D. in Psychology (Cognitive Neuroscience) from the University of South China Normal University under the supervision of Prof.Rongjun Yu, and then worked as a post-doc in Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo’s lab at Caltech. She is now an assistant professor at Tohoku University, Japan. She has a long-standing interest in psychophysics, neuroeconomics, social and cognitive neuroscience. She is particularly interested in how the human brain generates spontaneous/natural tempo, followed by why people show significant individual differences on natural tempo preference. She is trying to build an internal tempo representation map and database from neurobiopsychosoical perspectives, which may further gate the understanding of health, aging, psychiatry, and neurodegenerative disorders. Based on this framework, her study will shed light on neural engineering design and clinical application, with a general goal of tuning individuals’ brains from unnatural to a natural state, helping individuals sustain a natural state, thus improving public physical and mental health.

  • Translational Neuroscience LLC, USA
  • Title:Elucidating the Genomics of Highly Treatment-Resistant Psychotic Symptoms.
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Abstract:
Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder that presents with an array of psychotic symptoms along with significant motivational and cognitive dysfunction. In many cases, subtle neurological abnormalities (“soft signs”) are observable upon clinical examination. Approximately 30% of patients treated for schizophrenia exhibit treatment-resistant psychotic symptoms (hereafter, TRS). These patients have chronic severe psychotic symptoms, marked impairment in social community functioning, and higher rates of mortality, suicide, homelessness, and cognitive deficits than found in patients without TRS. Little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of TRS, and it is currently not possible to predict who will or who will not respond to antipsychotic treatment. The clinical impact of recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) associated with increased risk for TRS has been underexplored.
We sought to identify disease-associated copy number variants (CNVs) in patients with TRS and explore in-depth phenotypic data. CNVs were identified using SNP arrays and exome sequencing in over 500 patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders having ≥ three adequate antipsychotic medication trials with no clinically meaningful response over ≥ five years of psychiatric hospitalization. Analysis of the data from this cohort is fully underway. Here we will present in-depth phenotypic findings from several cases with disease-associated CNVs confirmed in a CLIA-certified lab. The case studies illustrate the potential that genomic studies may hold for elucidating diagnostic and treatment implications for TRS.

  • Department of Neurology, USA
  • Title:Astrocyte-Microglia Interaction in a Mouse Model of Neuromyelitis Optica.
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Abstract:
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory autoimmune CNS disorder triggered by binding
of an IgG autoantibody to the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel on astrocytes. Activation of cytolytic
complement has been implicated as the major effector of tissue destruction that secondarily involves
myelin. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms that precede the cytolytic astrocyte-centered
lesion of NMO are largely unknown. We investigated early precytolytic events in the evolving
pathophysiology of NMO in mice by continuously infusing IgG (NMO patient serum–derived or AQP4-
specific mouse monoclonal), without exogenous complement, into the spinal subarachnoid space.
Using this novel mouse model of NMO, we found that motor impairment and sublytic NMOcompatible immunopathology were IgG dose dependent and AQP4 dependent. By selectively deleting
microglia, we demonstrated an unanticipated central role for microglia in NMO pathogenesis that
involves early complement component signaling. In vivo spinal cord imaging revealed a striking
physical interaction between microglia and astrocytes that required signalling from astrocytes by the
C3a fragment of their upregulated complement C3 protein. Astrocytes remained viable but lost AQP4.
Furthermore, despite astrocyte activation and AQP4 downregulation by NMO-IgG, microglial activation
and interaction with astrocytes, and motor impairment were attenuated in mice lacking C3aR.
Therefore, previously unappreciated crosstalk between astrocytes and microglia involving earlyactivated CNS-intrinsic complement components and microglial C3a receptor signaling appears to be a
critical driver of the precytolytic phase in the evolving NMO lesion, including initial motor impairment.
Our study highlights the role of astrocyte-microglia interaction in NMO and suggests microglia as a
therapeutic target in the treatment of NMO.
Biography:
Dr. Long-Jun Wu received his PhD of Neurobiology from University of Science and Technology of China
in 2004. He did his postdoc trainings at University of Toronto (2004-2008) and Harvard Medical School
(2008-2011). He was an Instructor at Harvard Medical School (2011-2012) and then an Assistant
Professor at Rutgers University (2012-2016). Currently, he is Professor and Consultant at Department
of Neurology, Mayo Clinic. Dr. Wu’s research focuses on the neuroimmune interaction, particularly the
function of microglia, in normal and diseased brain. Dr. Wu has published more than 130 peerreviewed articles, including those in Nature Neuroscience, Neuron, Science Translational Medicine,
Nature Communications, Journal of Clinical Investigation, PNAS, PLoS Biology, eLife, Cell Reports,
Journal of Neuroscience, etc. His work is impactful in the field with more than 9000 citations and H
index of 50 in Google Scholar (03/2021). He serves as a standing member for NIH CMBG study section
and ad hoc reviewer for three other study sections. Dr. Wu is an Associate Editor for Frontiers of
Neuroscience, Molecular Brain, Neuroscience Bulletin, and he is also served in editorial boards for a
number of journals including Glia, Brain Behavior and Immunity, Molecular Pain, Neural Plasticity etc.

  • Department of Neurological Surgery at Montefiore Medical Center, USA
  • Title:We Aim to Characterize The Incidence, Risk for Mortality, and Identify Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients Presenting With Hemorrhage and COVID-19.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included a cohort of patients admitted to one of three major hospitals of our healthcare network including, an academic medical center and comprehensive stroke center, which ac- cepts transfers for complex cases from eight community hospitals, during March 1 to May 1, 2020. All patients that received imaging of the neuroaxis and had positive PCR testing for COVID-19 were identified and reviewed by an attending neuroradiologist. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Biomarkers were recorded from the day of the hemorrhagic event. Vital signs from the day of the hemorrhagic event mechanical ventilation orders at admission were recorded. Imaging findings were divided into 5 subtypes; acute subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), multi-compartmental hemorrhage (MCH), multi-focal intracerebral hemorrhage (MFH), and focal intracerebral hemorrhage (fICH). Outcomes were recorded as non-routine dis- charge and mortality.
Results: We found a total of 35 out of 5227 patients with COVID-19 that had hemorrhage of some kind. Mortality for the entire cohort was 45.7 % (n = 16). SDH patients had a mortality rate of 35.3 % (n = 6), SAH had a mortality of 50 % (n = 1), MCH patients had a mortality of 71.4 % (n = 5), MFH patients had a mortality of 50 % (n = 2), fICH patients had a mortality of 40 % (n = 2). Patients with severe pulmonary COVID requiring mechanical ventilation (OR 10.24 [.43−243.12] p = 0.015), with INR > 1.2 on the day of the hemorrhagic event (OR 14.36 [1.69−122.14] p = 0.015], and patients presenting with spontaneous vs. traumatic hemor- rhage (OR 6.11 [.31−118.89] p = 0.023) had significantly higher risk for mortality.
Conclusions: Hemorrhagic presentations with COVID-19 are a rare but serious way in which the illness can manifest. It is important for neurosurgeons to realize that patients can present with these findings without primary pulmonary symptoms, and that severe pulmonary symptoms, elevated INR, and spontaneous hemor- rhagic presentations is associated with increased risk for mortality.
Biography:
David Altschul, MD: Chief of Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery, Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery at Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Surgical Director of the Advanced Comprehensive Stroke Center at Montefiore Health System

  • Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University , China
  • Title:Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for The Diagnosis of Neural Antibody-Mediated Epilepsy/ Seizure in Patients with New-Onset Seizure or Established Epilepsy.
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Abstract:
Purpose: Currently, the diagnosis of neural antibody-mediated epilepsy/seizure (NAME/
S)relies heavily on neural antibody testing, which is time-consuming, costly and introduces
diagnostic delays. A statistical tool to predict the probability of a patient with NAME/S is
lacking. We aimed to construct a predictive model to help clinicians expedite the diagnostic
process.
Methods: We retrospectively recruited subjects (206 in the development group and 62 in the
validation group) with new-onset seizures or established epilepsy suspected to have presented
with antibody-mediated seizures between January 2014 and December 2019. We collected
data about demographics, medical history, clinical manifestations and follow up. Binary
logistic regression was used to select potential predictors for the construction of a predictive
model. Five-fold cross and bootstrap validation were applied to avoid overfitting.
Concordance index, calibration plots and decision curve analysis were used to assess its
performance.
Results:The model, incorporating presence/absence of tumour, psychiatric/cognitive/
emotional changes, language disturbances, sensory auras, tonic-clonic seizures, multiple
seizure events, hyponatremia and MRI inflammation, was visualized as a nomogram. The
crude and adjusted concordance indices were both 0.88 with a cut-off value of 0.62,
sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 77.4%. The slope and intercept of the calibration curve
were 0 and 1, respectively. The model also showed good performance in the validation group
with a concordance index of 0.82, cut-off value of 0.33, sensitivity of 75.5% and specificity
of 73.1%. The slope was 0.86 and the intercept was 0.039. Decision curve analysis showed
that the model was useful with an optimal threshold probability of >4% in both groups.
Conclusions: Despite limitations such as sample volume and selection bias in subject
enrolment, this model may be used to estimate the individualized probability of having
NAME/S, deserving further exploration and validation.
Biography:
I am a neurologist with an interest in the study of epilepsies. I work as an
attending doctor in the department of Neurology, Second Hospital of Hebei Medical
University. I received my Bachelor , Master’s and PhD degree in neurology in China

  • Tel Aviv University, Israel
  • Title:A New Homozygous HERC1 Gain-of-Function Variant in MDFPMR Syndrome Leads to mTORC1 Hyperactivation and Reduced Autophagy During Cell Catabolism.
  • Time :

Abstract:
The giant 532 kDa HERC1 protein is a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2), a negative upstream regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC2 regulates anabolic cell growth through its influence on protein synthesis, cell growth, proliferation, autophagy, and differentiation. TSC subunit 1 (TSC1) stabilizes TSC2 by inhibiting the interaction between TSC2 and HERC1, forming a TSC1-TSC2 complex that negatively regulates mTORC1. HERC1-TSC2 interaction destabilizes and degrades TSC2. Recessive mutations in HERC1 have been reported in patients with intellectual disability. Some patients exhibit epilepsy, macrocephaly, somatic overgrowth, and dysmorphic facial features as well. Here we describe two sisters from a consanguineous marriage with a novel homozygous missense variant in the C-terminal HECT domain of HERC1 [chr15:g63,907,989C>G GRCh37.p11 | c.14,072G>C NM_003922 | p.(Arg4,691Pro)]. Symptoms compris global developmental delay, macrocephaly, somatic overgrowth, intellectual disability, seizures, schizoaffective disorder, and pyramidal tract signs. We functionally assessed the HERC1 mutation by investigation of patient and control fibroblasts under normal and nutrient starving conditions. During catabolic state, mTORC1 activity remained high in patient fibroblasts, which stands in stark contrast to its downregulation in controls. This was corroborated by an abnormally high phosphorylation of S6K1-kinase, a direct downstream target of mTORC1, in patients. Moreover, autophagy, usually enhanced in catabolic states, was down-regulated in patient fibroblasts. These data confirm that the missense variant found in both patients results in a gain-of-function for the mutant HERC1 protein.

  • Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA
  • Title:Frontal Volume as a Potential Source of the Comorbidity Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorders
  • Time :

Abstract

Prefrontal volume reductions commonly are demonstrated in ADHD, but the literature examining prefrontal volume in reading disorders (RD) is scant despite their also having executive functioning (EF) deficits. Furthermore, only a few anatomical studies have examined the frontal lobes in comorbid RD/ADHD, even though they have EF deficits similar to RD and ADHD. Hence, we examined frontal gyri volume in children with RD, ADHD, RD/ADHD and controls, as well as their relationship to EF for gyri found to differ between groups. We found right inferior frontal (RIF) volume was smaller in ADHD, and smaller volume was related to worse behavioral regulation. Left superior frontal (LSF) volume was larger in RD than ADHD, and its size was negatively related to basic reading ability. Left middle frontal (LMF) volume was the largest in RD/ADHD overall. Further, its volume was not related to basic reading nor behavioral regulation but was related to worse attentional control, suggesting some specificity in EF relationships. When examining hypotheses on the etiology of RD/ADHD, RD/ADHD was commensurate to ADHD in RIF volume and both RD and ADHD in LSF volume (being midway between the groups), consistent with the multiple deficit/common deficit etiology hypothesis. Nevertheless, they also had an additional gyrus affected: LMF, consistent with the cognitive subtype hypothesis in its specificity to RD/ADHD. The few other frontal aMRI studies on RD/ADHD supported both hypotheses as well. For example, when we conducted a whole-brain VBM analysis on this data, we found clusters of reduced volume in the left precentral cortex in RD, various bilateral prefrontal regions in ADHD, and left medial and middle frontal gyri in RD/ADHD versus controls, along with other non-frontal regions. For all three clinical groups, clusters of smaller volume were found in the right superior frontal gyrus and striate (caudate) versus controls, being potential sources of shared etiology contributing to the RD/ADHD comorbidity. Given this, future research should continue to focus on frontal morphology in its endeavors to find neurobiological contributors to the comorbidity between RD and ADHD. Moreover, VBM and tracing were shown to be complementary, in that shared and dissimilar regions were demonstrated between the two methods, suggesting that both should continue to be used in research.

Biography
Dr. Kibby is a Full Professor in the Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Clinical Psychology programs within the School of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Her expertise include clinical child neuropsychology and developmental cognitive neuroscience. She studies shared and dissimilar contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially reading disorders and ADHD. Dr. Kibby and her lab have presented ~ 200 posters at national and international conferences, and she is a frequent invited speaker. She has 30 peer-reviewed publications as well as various book chapters. Dr. Kibby also has received two grants from NIH that have supported her MRI work.

  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, USA
  • Title:A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Childhood Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccination and Seizures
  • Time :

Abstract

Measles is a highly contagious rash illness that was estimated to annually infect about 500,000 Americans with about 1,000 persons developing encephalitis with permanent brain damage prior to routine measles vaccination. Starting in the late 1980s/early 1990s, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was routinely recommended for administration to American children at 12 through 15 months. A comprehensive meta-analysis by the Cochrane Review examined MMR vaccine safety. It was identified that the onset of febrile seizures was significantly increased from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination in children 12 to 23 months, but post-marketing MMR safety studies were inadequate. As a result, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD) was undertaken to examine the onset of new seizures from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The IHRD is composed of non-identifiable healthcare records generated from the Florida Medicaid system. A vaccinated cohort of 23,486 children continuously enrolled in the IRHD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving at least one dose of MMR vaccination between 12 through 16 months, and not diagnosed with a seizure prior to their first MMR vaccination was examined. An unvaccinated cohort of 41,725 children continuously enrolled in the IHRD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving no doses of measles-containing vaccines, and were not diagnosed with a seizure prior to 12 months of age was examined. Cox proportional hazards ratio and time-trend models post-MMR vaccination compared to unvaccinated persons and in a self-controlled case-series revealed the incidence rate of an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination and the incidence rate of an eventual seizure disorder among those with an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination were significantly increased in all analyses undertaken. About 1 in 3,100 MMR vaccines administered to children from 12 through 16 months were attributably associated with a seizure disorder diagnosis following an initial seizure episode with an onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The observed rate of seizure disorder diagnosis post-MMR vaccination is estimated to be a > 80% reduction as compared to natural measles infection. Further, a recent long-term longitudinal cohort study of American children in the IHRD revealed that childhood MMR vaccination reduced the rate of diagnosed measles by 80% to 90%. On balance, despite the adverse neurological effects post-MMR vaccination, the routine childhood MMR vaccination program in the US is an important and effective means to control natural measles infection, but on rare occasions is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorder.

Biography

David A. Geier received a BA in biology and a minor in history from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). Mr. Geier undertook graduate studies at the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences at the National Institutes of Health and at the George Washington University. He has coauthored more than 150 publications in academic journals and medical textbook chapters and been an invited presenter at numerous prestigious academic conferences around the world. Mr. Geier was an accredited participant on behalf of the accredited non-governmental organization, CoMeD, Inc, at multiple intergovernmental negotiating committee meetings of the United Nations Environmental Programme to help prepare a global legally binding treaty on mercury, the “Minamata Convention on Mercury”, to help reduce global human mercury exposure and harm. Mr. Geier is the co-founder and currently co-director of the non-profit Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc.

  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, USA
  • Title:A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Childhood Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccination and Seizures
  • Time :

Abstract

Measles is a highly contagious rash illness that was estimated to annually infect about 500,000 Americans with about 1,000 persons developing encephalitis with permanent brain damage prior to routine measles vaccination. Starting in the late 1980s/early 1990s, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was routinely recommended for administration to American children at 12 through 15 months. A comprehensive meta-analysis by the Cochrane Review examined MMR vaccine safety. It was identified that the onset of febrile seizures was significantly increased from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination in children 12 to 23 months, but post-marketing MMR safety studies were inadequate. As a result, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD) was undertaken to examine the onset of new seizures from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The IHRD is composed of non-identifiable healthcare records generated from the Florida Medicaid system. A vaccinated cohort of 23,486 children continuously enrolled in the IRHD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving at least one dose of MMR vaccination between 12 through 16 months, and not diagnosed with a seizure prior to their first MMR vaccination was examined. An unvaccinated cohort of 41,725 children continuously enrolled in the IHRD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving no doses of measles-containing vaccines, and were not diagnosed with a seizure prior to 12 months of age was examined. Cox proportional hazards ratio and time-trend models post-MMR vaccination compared to unvaccinated persons and in a self-controlled case-series revealed the incidence rate of an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination and the incidence rate of an eventual seizure disorder among those with an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination were significantly increased in all analyses undertaken. About 1 in 3,100 MMR vaccines administered to children from 12 through 16 months were attributably associated with a seizure disorder diagnosis following an initial seizure episode with an onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The observed rate of seizure disorder diagnosis post-MMR vaccination is estimated to be a > 80% reduction as compared to natural measles infection. Further, a recent long-term longitudinal cohort study of American children in the IHRD revealed that childhood MMR vaccination reduced the rate of diagnosed measles by 80% to 90%. On balance, despite the adverse neurological effects post-MMR vaccination, the routine childhood MMR vaccination program in the US is an important and effective means to control natural measles infection, but on rare occasions is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorder.

Biography

Mark R. Geier received a BS in zoology, a PhD in genetics, and a MD from the George Washington University and is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. Dr. Geier was a research scientist in the Laboratory of General and Comparative Biochemistry at the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health for 10 years. He was an assistant professor in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and an assistant research professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed School of the Health Sciences. Dr. Geier practiced clinical medicine for more than 30 years. He has coauthored more than 200 publications in academic journals and medical textbook chapters and been an invited presenter at numerous prestigious academic conferences around the world. Dr. Geier was an accredited participant on behalf of the accredited non-governmental organization, CoMeD, Inc, at multiple intergovernmental negotiating committee meetings of the United Nations Environmental Programme to help prepare a global legally binding treaty on mercury, the “Minamata Convention on Mercury”, to help reduce global human mercury exposure and harm. Dr. Geier is the co-founder and currently co-director of the nonprofit Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc.

  • University Of Queretaro , Mexico
  • Title:Analysis Of The Potential Impact Of Strabismus With And Without Amblyopia On The Visual-Perceptual And Visual-Motor Skills Evaluated Using Tvps-3 And Vmi-6 Tests
  • Time :

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the potential impact of strabismus and amblyopia on the visual-perceptual skills (VPS) and visual-motor skills (VMS) of patients according to the type of strabismus, visual acuity (VA), state of binocularity, and sex. The study analyzes a sample of 146 children aged 5–15 years with strabismus from Querétaro, México.
Methods: This is an observational, transverse, and prospective study involving 88 male and 58 female patients with strabismus. The strabismus type considers the deviation direction, frequency, binocularity state, and associated and dissociated elements. VPS and VMS are evaluated using the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills 3rd ed. (TVPS-3) and Visual-Motor Integration Test of Beery 6th ed. (VMI-6).
Results: Sex was the main variable associated with the performance of the analyzed patients on TVPS-3 and VMI-6 (p < 0.05); boys obtained better scores than girls in all evaluated aspects. Stereopsis was not a determinant of their performance level, but it was associated with the far and near angles of deviation in both types of strabismus. Amblyopia was related to the spatial relationship (p = 0.001) and visual closure abilities (p = 0.044). Form constancy skill scores diminished in both types of strabismus (esotropia: p = 0.011; exotropia: p = 0.004), and VMS were the most affected ability in patients with strabismus. Conclusions: Performance of patients with strabismus with and without amblyopia on TVPS-3 and VMI-6 suggests that they adopt a mechanism to compensate for its impact on their VPS and VMS. Keywords: visual-perceptual skills, visual-motor abilities, strabismus, amblyopia, cortical changes.

  • The Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Egypt
  • Title:Successful Oral Treatment of Third Cranial Nerve Palsy and Optc Neurits from Neglected Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Patentt
  • Time :

Abstract

Purpose: Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral erupton caused by the reactvaton of varicella zoster virus (VZV), a herpes virus causing chicken pox in children. We aimed to report a 3- month neglected case of acute herpes zoster-induced third nerve palsy and optc neurits, followed by a late-onset keratouveits in an immunocompetent young adult.
Observations: A 36-year old immunocompetent Egyptan male patent presented with 3- month complaints of blurred vision and drooping of his lef upper eyelid that appeared 4 days after a herpetc rash. He had been diagnosed with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) of the lef eye. However, he had not received any systemic antviral treatment. The patent had an abnormal head posture with post-eruptve scars on the lef forehead and the nose tp. Examinaton revealed weakness of elevation and adducton, partal ptosis, and mid-dilated non-reactve pupil in the lef eye. A relatve afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was present in the affected eye. His blood sugar and blood pressure were within normal limits. Contrast magnetc resonance imaging (MRI) showed no space-occupying lesion. However, there were
enhancement and enlargement of the lef optc nerve on T1-weighted images, denotng optc neurits. A diagnosis of acute lef third nerve palsy with pupil involvement and optc neurits secondary to HZO was made. Despite late treatment with oral acyclovir and prednisolone, the patent recovered. One and a half months later, he developed a late-onset
keratouveits about 8 months afer the rash onset. Afer the resoluton of the episode, oral acyclovir was contnued at a prophylactc dose (444 mg BID).
Conclusions aod importance: HZ is a rare cause of third nerve palsy with pupil involvement and optic neurits. Oral acyclovir and steroids were effective in the delayed treatment in this case. Abnormal optc nerve enhancement on MRI 3 months afer the appearance of vesicular rash may suggest chronic HZ activity. Concurrent optic neurits and third cranial nerve palsy in the absence of other signs of orbital apex syndrome can be seen in cases of HZO. Regular follow-up of patents with HZ is important for detectng recurrence and initatng prompt treatment.

Biography

My name is Samah Ahmed Osman. I am a Consultant in Ophthalmology. I had obtained my Bachelor degree in Medicine and Surgery from the faculty of Medicine of Alexandria University in Egypt. I worked in French hospitals as a resident in Emergency & Surgery departments for one and half year. I returned home and I had obtained a Master degree in General Surgery from the faculty of Medicine of Cairo University. As I was always passionate about Ophthalmology, I made a ‘career shif’, and I had obtained a diploma in Ophthalmology from the faculty of Medicine of El Azhar University, as a second specialty. I believe in contnual learning and practcing in Medicine. Therefore, I joined The Egyptan Fellowship training program in Ophthalmology for 4 years. I had practced in specialized ophthalmology insttutes in several subspecialty departments. I had obtained The Fellowship of The Egyptan Board of Ophthalmology [FEBO]. I also succeeded in the examinatons of part 2 of The Fellowship of The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (FRCS) of Glasgow. I intend to take the examinatons of part 3 FRCS (Glasgow) next year. I took many visitor posts in The Research Insttute of Ophthalmology in Strabismus, Oculoplastcs, and Vitreo-Retnal departments. I am honored to have my frst publicaton (this case report) in The Americao Jouroal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. I work in a private clinic.

  • University of San Martín, Argentina
  • Title:
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Abstract

Depression affects hundreds of people. Despite its complex etiology, it is accepted that chronic stress is a key factor in its onset. Since stress main effects occur in the brain, an inaccessible area, we focused in detecting stress molecules in peripheral fluids such as blood or saliva. We have shown that the neural glycoprotein M6a can be detected in serum. M6a contributes to the neuronal plasticity promoting neurite and filopodium growth
and synaptogenesis (Alfonso 2004, Brocco 2010, Formoso 2016). Next, we demonstrated that M6a is carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are delivered by cells in physiological and pathological conditions, can be isolated from almost all fluids and are used in the diagnosis of several diseases. Then, we showed that M6a-carrying EVs, but not EVs without M6a, induced a phenotypical change in COS-7 cells observed as filopodium formation. This indicates that M6a coupled to EVs might participate in cellular communication and contribute to cellular plasticity maintenance. Since M6a has also been related to several neuropsychiatric disorders, we studied serum M6a levels in chronically stressed animals. We found that stress altered M6a levels in blood. Thus, we proposed M6a as a putative stress biomarker (Monteleone, 2017). Furthermore, using patient saliva samples we showed that M6a levels positively correlated with the scores for the perceived stress scale in individuals diagnosed with depression. This reinforces the idea of M6a as a stress-responsive protein whose levels changes when the individual experiences stress. In addition, saliva samples of depressed patients treated with classic antidepressants (SRI) or with benzodiazepines differed in their M6a levels with respect to untreated patients. This suggests a potential use of M6a for evaluation of antidepressant treatment efficacy (Monteleone 2020). These findings encourage us to continue the study of M6a as a putative stress biomarker and also to determine if EVs can per se be messengers of the stress signal.

Biography

Dr Melisa Monteleone is an Argentinian molecular biologist. She is a researcher from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET) at the Institute for Research in Biotechnology in the Neurobiology of Stress laboratory from the University of San Martin (UNSAM). She obtained her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biotechnology from the UNSAM and received a postdoctoral training with Dr Alberto Frasch in the field of neurobiology. Dr Monteleone has centered her research on the role of chronic stress, prenatal and during adulthood, on individual genetics, epigenetics and behavioral alterations and how these effects could be detected in a simple way using extracellular vesicles. She is also a teaching assistant in the B.Sc. career of UNSAM and a member of
the B.Sc. student tutoring and mentoring committee.

  • Instituto de Investigation Medica M y M Ferreyra, INIMECCONICET, Argentina
  • Title:PERK Signaling Mediates Neurite Atrophy and Apoptosis in a GM2-Gangliosidosis
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Abstract

GM2-gangliosidosis, a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by deficiency of hexosaminidase activity, and comprises the closely related TaySachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents normal metabolization of ganglioside GM2, usually resulting in progressive neurodegenerative disease. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular processes. A disturbance of any of these functions imposes stress to the ER and subsequently leads to accumulation of unfolded protein in the lumen organelar. This condition activates a signal transduction pathway called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) that attempts to restore homeostasis in the ER, but if the stress persists the signaling switches and induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms whereby GM2 accumulation in neurons triggers neurodegeneration remain unclear. We found that ganglioside GM2 accumulation in the ER induce decrease in the luminal Ca2+ content. This in turn activate PERK (protein kinase RNA [PKR]-like ER kinase) signaling, one of UPR branches, which shows two phases: one acute,
where the cytoprotective calcineurin is up regulated, and another where is enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, we present evidence showing that pharmacological as
well as molecular modulation of PERK signaling changes the vulnerability of neurons to undergo neurite atrophy and apoptosis.

Biography

Dr Mariana Bollo graduated as a Microbiologist at the National University of Rio IV,Argentina and obtained her Ph.D. in Biology Sciences at the same University in 2003. Then, she was a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), USA. She is currently Associate
Researcher (Faculty e.q.) of the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Argentina.
Her laboratory focuses on understanding the signaling pathway underlying the calcium regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum perturbation and its relationship to pathological conditions. One specific area of research is an investigation of the underlying protective mechanisms mediated by Calcineurin β and moderated cytosolic Ca2+ rise after brain injury. A second area of research focused on the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in change the susceptibility of neurons to undergo apoptosis in GM2-gangliosidosis.

  • Maine Medical Research Institute (MMCRI), USA
  • Title:Metabolic Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease
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Abstract

α-Synuclein is a polypeptide encoded by the Snca gene, highly expressed in neurons, but it is also found in bones and adipose tissue. Aggregation of α-Synuclein is the principal component of Lewy bodies in the central nervous system of PD (Parkinson’s Disease) and PDD (Parkinson’s Disease Dementia) patients. Symptoms include progressive immobilization and a range of -often unnoticed – nonmotor symptoms, including osteopenia, body composition alterations and insulin resistance. The aim of this talk is to discuss PD pathophysiology emphasizing potential α-Synuclein’s intrinsic role in bone health and metabolism.
By using a variety of conditional deletion and overexpression of α-Synuclein mice models we tested the effects of α-Synuclein in skeletal metabolism and microarchitecture, and adipose tissue during estrogen deficiency and diet-induced obesity. In vitro models of loss and overexpression of α-Synuclein showed a dose dependent effect in mitochondrial morphology, adipogenesis and insulin signaling.
Future research is essential to understand the local and systemic effects of α-Synuclein signaling on bone remodeling and adipose metabolism to shed light into possible treatment targets for osteoporosis and insulin resistance in PD patients.

Biography

Dr. Figueroa graduated with honors from Bachelor in Science, biology major from University of Chile (U. Chile) in 2009. Her formal scientific beginning was on developmental biology and human infertility research. In 2015, she obtained her Master’s degree at U. Chile from her work on the role of BMP-2 in lineage commitment in bone mesenchymal stem cells from postmenopausal osteoporotic women. She joined Dr. Rosen Laboratory at Maine Medical Center Research Institute (MMCRI) to study the role of α-Synuclein in bone and adipose tissue by using relevant PD mice models. She obtained her Ph.D. from University of Maine in July 2020. She has presented several occasions at the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), has two first author publications and two supporting author publications. She is currently working in her third first author publication and participating as a lecturer in a “Osteoporosis in Parkinson’s Disease” course (UCB, Spain).

  • State University of Maringa, Brazil
  • Title:Juvenile Physical and Psychological Stress has Opposite Effects on the Hippocampus of Adult Rats - Unsuccessful and Successful Adaptation
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Abstract

Studies point out that predictable stress models with a short time duration do not lead to a toxic effect, on the contrary, they cause adaptation and can collaborate to elucidate the mechanisms of resilience. This study investigated the long-term behavioral and neuroanatomical effects in two low-stress models (psychological and physical) experienced in the early phase. Male Wistar rats (n=42) were arranged into three groups: Control (C), Physical Stress (Restraint) e Psychological Stress (Predator-Cat). As juvenile (P25 to P27), each group was submitted to the respective stress model, and their behavior was analyzed on P60. The Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test was used to verify the anxiety-like behavior exhibited by the rats, and Novel Object Preference Task was used to verify their memory in three different instants: after 15 minutes (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3). On P80, after perfusion, their brains were prepared and the sections were processed to verify the hippocampus volume which were analyzed through the Nissl staining method, and the hippocampus’ dendritic spine in their regions CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) was analyzed through Golgi-Cox.
The data obtained in the EPM revealed no effect on exploration in the open and closed arm and anxiety index, thus suggesting resistance to develop anxious behavior in both types of stresses. Regarding their cognitive behavior, there was no significant effect on the rats’ performance in the memory tests, in all tests T1, T2, and T3, therefore suggesting that both types of stresses had no long-term impact.
The neuroanatomical analysis revealed that there was no change in the volume of the hippocampus, this result was obtained by analyzing the surface area of the neurons layer in the regions CA1, CA3, as well as DG. However, the analysis of dendritic spines revealed a pattern of biological responses: while the Physical Stress decreased the dendritic spines’ density, the Psychological Stress increased it, in comparison to the control group. These effects were observed in three analyzed regions, CA1, CA3, and DG hipocampus’. Our data suggest that physical stress has a negative long-term effect, whereas, the psychological stress causes effect considered a successful adaptation, and the next question is answer why.

Biography

Professor (Neuroanatomy- State University of Maringa -Brazil) since 1991, received the Ph.D in Biological Science from State University of São Paulo (Brazil), a Post-doc position in Neuroscience from University of Lethbridge (Canada), and Philipps-Universität Marburg (Germany).The main research activities are in the fields about brain plasticity relatet to stress and resilience.

  • Gamal Abdel Nasser University of Conakry, Guinea
  • Title:What is the Nutritional Status of your Patients Suffering from Stroke
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Abstract

Strokes can significantly affect the autonomy and the ability of the patient to feed properly. Malnutrition after strokes increases the length of stay in hospital, increases mortality and aggravates disability. Nutritional support is a therapeutic that can be useful in the management of strokes and during the rehabilitation period. It may help to reduce the occurrence of complications due to the physical dependence associated with this condition. The objective of our study was to evaluate, through a questionnaire, the opinion of prescribing doctors working in the Department of Neurology of The FANN National Teaching Hospital in Dakar. The interest of the question resides in the fact that the Center does not have a dedicated nutritionist for inpatients. This was an opinion poll about their concerns about the nutritional status of patients in the therapeutic projects they propose during the stroke. The type of the chosen opinion poll was elementary, type random. The questionnaire was individual and consisted of five items of single-response and multiple-choice questions. The results of this study reveal that while the nutritional status of patients with limited autonomy in the service was a concern in the intentions of the prescribers, in practice it was not taken into account in therapeutic projects. To date, no structured protocol is available in cases of proven nutritional deterioration in patients. Nutritional management must be integrated into the overall management of Neurology patients, particularly in elderly victims of strokes.

  • National Technical University of Athens, Greece
  • Title:Urban Livability: Tracking the Connection Between Stress Levels and Spatial Stimuli in Copenhagen City, Denmark
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Abstract

Cities can often be stressful environments for both subjects and design providers and can affect people’s subjective wellbeing. Studies indicate that high levels of stress-related problems during navigation are observed mostly. This study focuses on the spatial variables causing mental and emotional stress in a particular urban area. An experiment assessed how subjects exposed to a specific urban environment form composite precepts that trigger certain emotional states. The proposed experiment has been performed on a path in Copenhagen city center. Tracking the subject’s emotional reactions in response to specific spatial features of the path could lead to the highlighting of the association between stress levels, memory, and spatial stimuli during navigation. Also, it could cause the design of improved spatial configurations for the urban environment. Eye-tracking glasses and skin sensors were administered for the experiment in twenty participants. The findings indicated that although subjects characterized the path as livable, many participants could not recall the spatial stimuli observed during the navigation process. The primary reasons were found to a high level of stress in the path, be crowded, be noise, and be narrow. The outcome of research suggests that the effect of stressors is connected to spatial features that are crucial for the wellbeing of human beings and the livability of the built environment. The research aims to introduce a new approach to designing less stressful urban environments easier to recall.

Biography

Maria Christofi is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Architectural Technology- Cognitive and Computational Architecture in the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Department of Architecture. Her recent research explores the intersections between architecture, cognition, and computing. She investigates how our environment’s perception adapts to the alterations of the built environment. Her methodology is based on a situated computing practice that investigates spatial-cognitional phenomena across different scales. Her research also includes the development of a spatial application called FUMapp, under the guidance of Professors Miltiades Katsaros, Sotirios D. Kotsopoulos, and Louis Emilio Bruni. Her work has been published in scientific and design journals, as well as Computation and Architecture conferences. She has taught design studios at NTUA and the University of Cyprus (UCY). As a researcher, Maria has collaborated with Augmented Cognition Lab (AAU), MesArch Lab (UCY), Franklin and Marshall University for ‘Drones above the Stones’ project, while most recently, she started a collaboration with KIOS Research Center (UCY). She holds a BSc in Architecture from UCY, an MSc in Design-Space-Culture and Cognitive Architecture from the NTUA. She is a registered architect in the EU since 2013 and has several years of experience in architectural practice. During her studies, Maria received the Athanasios Ktorides Foundation Fellowship, the Sylvia Ioannou Fellowship, the Cyprus State Scholarship Foundation Fellowship, the DOMES International Magazine Award, and the International Allplan Young Architects Award.

  • University of Passo Fundo, Brazil
  • Title:Initial Experience with a Flow Redirection Endoluminal Device Stent-A Brazilian Multicenter Study
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Abstract

The endovascular approach has become the therapy of choice for intracranial aneurysms. The development of flow-diverter (FD) stents has offered the potential of aneurysm occlusion by vessel reconstruction, and these devices are an excellent choice for treating wide-necked, large, and fusiform aneurysms. The classic FDs are the Pipeline Embolization Device and SILK Flow Diverter, but other models have become available on the market in recent years. The Flow Re-direction Endoluminal Device (FRED) stent is a relatively new device with certain particular characteristics that distinguish it from older FDs. We report a retrospective series of 28 patients with 38 aneurysms treated with 29 FREDs from August 2016 to July 2017. Cases were treated at three different centers by three interventional neuroradiologists with similar expertise in using FDs. Our objective was to explore the differences of this device compared to past FDs, its safety, and its complication rates during early follow-up. We conclude the FRED stent is a safe device, with high success rates at deployment and low rates of clinical complications. Its modified architecture makes it much easier to navigate, but it may not expand well in tight curves. In this event, it is preferable to resheath the stent and attempt to deliver it again than to attempt balloon angioplasty across an incomplete opening, as the stent mesh is very difficult to cross. Our results are consistent with those of other case series.

  • Guangzhou Medical University, China
  • Title:Electrical status Epilepticus in Sleep Affects Intrinsically Connected Networks in Patients with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes
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Abstract

Background: Although outcomes of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) are frequently excellent, some atypical forms of BECTS, especially electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), are characterized by worse outcomes and negative impacts on cognitive development.Methods: To explore specific ESES-related brain networks in BECTS patients, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan BECTS patients with ESES (n = 9), BECTS patients without ESES (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 36). Unbiased seed-based whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) was adopted to explore the connectivity mode of three resting-state cerebral networks: the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network
(CEN).Results: Compared with the other two groups, BECTS patients with ESES showed FC in the SN or in the CEN decreased, but not in the DMN. Moreover, we found the FC in the CEN in BECTS patients without ESES decreased when compared with controls. Our currently intrinsically defined anticorrelated networks strength was disrupted in BECTS and connote greater deactivation than the results from functional connectivity for a seed region in the BECTS children.Conclusion: These results indicated that the BECTS children with ESES showed brain activity altered in the CEN and the SN. The difference of impairment in the SN and CEN may lead to improve understand the underlying neuropathophysiology, and to assess the activity of BECTS patient with ESES, which is crucial for measuring disease
activity, improving patient care and assessing the effect of antiepilepsy therapy.

Biography

Hongsheng Liu was born in Hubei Province, China in 1972. He received the B.S. degrees in clinical medicine from Tongji Medical University, Wuhan, in1995, the M.S. degrees in imaging and nuclear medicine from China Medical University, Shenyang, in 2003, and the M.D. degree in imaging and nuclear medicine from Southern
Medical University, Guangzhou, in 2010. From February to August 2007, he was a visiting scholar, Astrid Lindgrens
Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University. From 2011 to 2017, he was director of MRI Department of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center. Since 2017, he has been director of Radiology Department of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center. He is the editor-in-chief of “Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnostics”,
more than 70 articles, and more than 8 scientific research projects. His research interests include gynecology and pediatrics imaging diagnosis, especially in children’s central nervous system, bones and fetus. He held more than 3 national continuing education courses, such as New advances in pediatric neuroimaging diagnosis. Dr. liu is deputy leader of Gynecology and Pediatrics Group of Guangdong Radiological Society and member of more than 9 societies.

  • Institute of Biotechnology, Czechia.
  • Title:Requirements for SOX2 in Early Neurosensory Development
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Abstract

SOX2 is essential for maintaining neurosensory stem cell properties and it is involved in the early neurosensory development, in particular the brain and various sensory organs. SOX2 acts by maintaining an undifferentiated pro-neurosensory cell state that allows for proliferation in various developmental systems. SOX2 plays multiple roles in neuronal, sensory, and non-sensory development. At present, it is unclear how SOX2 achieves all these different functions. Interactions of SOX2 with other transcription factors likely represent a potential mechanism allowing for different roles of SOX2 in development. Several transcription factors have been shown to cooperate with SOX2 in different cell lineages, including C-MYC, Pax6, EYA1, SIX1, and CHD7. Additionally, the involvement of SOX2 in the early neurosensory development of cranial placodes remains unclear. To address this, we conditionally deleted Sox2 during eye, ear, and olfactory placode development. Early deletion of Sox2 eradicates all olfactory placode development, and disrupts retinal development and invagination of the lens placode. In contrast to the lens and olfactory placodes, the ear placode invaginates and delaminates NEUROD1 positive neurons. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 is not necessary for early ear neurogenesis, since the early inner ear ganglion is formed with near normal central projections to the hindbrain and peripheral projections to the undifferentiated sensory epithelia of the inner ear.

Biography

Dr. Gabriela Pavlinkova received her Ph.D. in Immunology in 2000 from Charles University, Prague, Czechia. After a postdoctoral training at University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA, she was appointed Assistant Professor at University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA in 2005. Since 2008, she is Head of Laboratory of Molecular Pathogenetics, Institute of Biotechnology Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

Research interest

My main research interest is to understand molecular aspects of neuronal development. I am focused on genetic mutations affecting transcriptional regulation during embryonic development, the molecular mechanisms of developmental programming, and identification of the molecular causes of abnormal embryonic development and disease predispositions.

  • Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar
  • Title:Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM ) for Epilepsy Treatment in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region
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Abstract

Introduction
The aim of this study is to provide the reader with a review on Complementary andAlternative Medicine (CAM) treatment in epilepsy in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA) region, describe the extent and factors associated with its use among patients with epilepsy (PWE), and recommend how effectively we will be able to reduce this alarming use .
Material and Methods
Retrospective literature search from 1945 to December 2019, regarding CAM use in the MENA region , using electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar,Web of Science ) identified pertinent articles for review.
Conclusion
The use of CAM and consultation of traditional healers for the treatment of epilepsy has so far been widespread practice for centuries in the MENA region. Lack of health professionals and non-adherence to conventional epilepsy treatment are strongly associated with the use of CAM. Improvement in the level of knowledge of epilepsy among PWE, healthcare professionals, including traditional healers, will educate PWE and their caregivers on potentially unsafe practices and promote adherence to Antiseizure Drugs (ASDs). Additionally, randomized controlled trials are needed to study the role and value of various CAM treatment options in PWEs

Biography

Dr Boulenouar Mesraoua is Consultant Neurologist at Hamad Medical Corporation at the Neuroscience Department at Hamad Hospital and also Associate Professor of Clinical Neurology at Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar. He graduated as a Medical Doctor from the University of Oran, Algeria. He then moved to Belgium, the City of Liege, for a Residency in Internal Medicine and Neurology at Liege University. After getting the Belgian Board of Neurology (with high marks),he went to the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Queen Square, London,United Kingdom,for a fellowship in Clinical Neurophysiology, under Pr Willison, Dr Mesraoua had also further training in Epilepsy and Continuous EEG Monitoring for two years in the Neurophysiology department of Zurich, Switzerland under late Pr Hans Gregor Wieser, an internationally known clinical epileptologist. Dr B.Mesraoua was until recently Director of the Neurology Fellowship Program at the Neurology Section and is an active member of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. He is also Assistant Director of the Residency Program at the new Qatar Medical School.
Dr B.Mesraoua main interests are Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Clinical Neurology. He is the Chairman and the Organizer of the well known Qatar Epilepsy Symposium. He is running yearly for the past 14 years and which is considered a landmark in the Gulf region. He has also started last year, together with other epileptologists from Qatar and the region and elsewhere, a yearly International Epilepsy School Course,which was attended by many neurologists from the Area.
Both scientific events are under the umbrella of the international League against epilepsy (ILAE) and the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Internationally Dr Mesraoua is an active and elected member of the Commission on Eastern Mediterranean Region(EMR)a regional branch of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), where he represents the Middle East and North Africa(MENA ) and where he hold the position of chief of the Epilepsy Epidemiology Section.
Dr Mesraoua is a member of the American Academy of Neurology, the Europeen Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society.
Dr Mesraoua main objectives are to encourage frequent gathering of the epileptologists/neurologists from the MENA region and the rest of the world , promote Epilepsy Teaching in the MENA Region, and encourage multicenter studies involving neurologists and epileptologists in the MENA region, particularly epilepsy epidemiological studies.
Dr Mesraoua is the recipient of two research Grants, as the Lead Principal Investigator (750.000 USD and 250.000 USD) from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) and the Hamad Hospital Internal Research Grant (IRGC) , on the following topics : “Continuous EEG Monitoring in the ICU “ and on “Alpha-lactoalbumin , proof of concept in the treatment of epilepsy”.
Dr Mesraoua is the author and co-author of many peer reviewed publications and four book chapters in the field of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurology.

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