• Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar
  • Title:Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM ) for Epilepsy Treatment in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region
  • Time :

Abstract

Introduction
The aim of this study is to provide the reader with a review on Complementary andAlternative Medicine (CAM) treatment in epilepsy in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA) region, describe the extent and factors associated with its use among patients with epilepsy (PWE), and recommend how effectively we will be able to reduce this alarming use .
Material and Methods
Retrospective literature search from 1945 to December 2019, regarding CAM use in the MENA region , using electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar,Web of Science ) identified pertinent articles for review.
Conclusion
The use of CAM and consultation of traditional healers for the treatment of epilepsy has so far been widespread practice for centuries in the MENA region. Lack of health professionals and non-adherence to conventional epilepsy treatment are strongly associated with the use of CAM. Improvement in the level of knowledge of epilepsy among PWE, healthcare professionals, including traditional healers, will educate PWE and their caregivers on potentially unsafe practices and promote adherence to Antiseizure Drugs (ASDs). Additionally, randomized controlled trials are needed to study the role and value of various CAM treatment options in PWEs

Biography

Dr Boulenouar Mesraoua is Consultant Neurologist at Hamad Medical Corporation at the Neuroscience Department at Hamad Hospital and also Associate Professor of Clinical Neurology at Weill Cornell Medical College Qatar. He graduated as a Medical Doctor from the University of Oran, Algeria. He then moved to Belgium, the City of Liege, for a Residency in Internal Medicine and Neurology at Liege University. After getting the Belgian Board of Neurology (with high marks),he went to the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, Queen Square, London,United Kingdom, for a fellowship in Clinical Neurophysiology, under Pr Willison, He had also further training in Epilepsy and Continuous EEG Monitoring for two years in the Neurophysiology department of Zurich, Switzerland under late Pr Hans Gregor Wieser, an internationally known clinical epileptologist. He was until recently Director of the Neurology Fellowship Program at the Neurology Section and is an active member of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. He is also Assistant Director of the Residency Program at the new Qatar Medical School. His main interests are Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis and Clinical Neurology. He is the Chairman and the Organizer of the well known Qatar Epilepsy Symposium. He is running yearly for the past 14 years and which is considered a landmark in the Gulf region. He has also started last year, together with other epileptologists from Qatar and the region and elsewhere, a yearly International Epilepsy School Course,which was attended by many neurologists from the Area. Both scientific events are under the umbrella of the international League against epilepsy (ILAE) and the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Internationally he is an active and elected member of the Commission on Eastern Mediterranean Region(EMR)a regional branch of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), where he represents the Middle East and North Africa(MENA ) and where he hold the position of chief of the Epilepsy Epidemiology Section.He is a member of the American Academy of Neurology, the Europeen Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. His main objectives are to encourage frequent gathering of the epileptologists/neurologists from the MENA region and the rest of the world , promote Epilepsy Teaching in the MENA Region, and encourage multicenter studies involving neurologists and epileptologists in the MENA region, particularly epilepsy epidemiological studies. He is the recipient of two research Grants, as the Lead Principal Investigator (750.000 USD and 250.000 USD) from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) and the Hamad Hospital Internal Research Grant (IRGC), on the following topics : “Continuous EEG Monitoring in the ICU “ and on “Alpha-lactoalbumin , proof of concept in the treatment of epilepsy”.He is the author and co-author of many peer reviewed publications and four book chapters in the field of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurology.

  • Guangzhou Medical University, China
  • Title:Electrical status Epilepticus in Sleep Affects Intrinsically Connected Networks in Patients with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes
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Abstract

Background: Although outcomes of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) are frequently excellent, some atypical forms of BECTS, especially electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), are characterized by worse outcomes and negative impacts on cognitive development.Methods: To explore specific ESES-related brain networks in BECTS patients, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan BECTS patients with ESES (n = 9), BECTS patients without ESES (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 36). Unbiased seed-based whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) was adopted to explore the connectivity mode of three resting-state cerebral networks: the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network
(CEN).Results: Compared with the other two groups, BECTS patients with ESES showed FC in the SN or in the CEN decreased, but not in the DMN. Moreover, we found the FC in the CEN in BECTS patients without ESES decreased when compared with controls. Our currently intrinsically defined anticorrelated networks strength was disrupted in BECTS and connote greater deactivation than the results from functional connectivity for a seed region in the BECTS children.Conclusion: These results indicated that the BECTS children with ESES showed brain activity altered in the CEN and the SN. The difference of impairment in the SN and CEN may lead to improve understand the underlying neuropathophysiology, and to assess the activity of BECTS patient with ESES, which is crucial for measuring disease
activity, improving patient care and assessing the effect of antiepilepsy therapy.

Biography

Dr.Hongsheng Liu was born in Hubei Province, China in 1972. He received the B.S. degrees in clinical medicine from Tongji Medical University, Wuhan, in1995, the M.S. degrees in imaging and nuclear medicine from China Medical University, Shenyang, in 2003, and the M.D. degree in imaging and nuclear medicine from Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, in 2010. From February to August 2007, he was a visiting scholar, Astrid Lindgrens Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University. From 2011 to 2017, he was director of MRI Department of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center. Since 2017, he has been director of Radiology Department of Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center. He is the editor-in-chief of “Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnostics”, more than 70 articles, and more than 8 scientific research projects. His research interests include gynecology and pediatrics imaging diagnosis, especially in children’s central nervous system, bones and fetus. He held more than 3 national continuing education courses, such as New advances in pediatric neuroimaging diagnosis.He is deputy leader of Gynecology and Pediatrics Group of Guangdong Radiological Society and member of more than 9 societies.

  • Gamal Abdel Nasser University of Conakry, Guinea
  • Title:What is the Nutritional Status of your Patients Suffering from Stroke
  • Time :

Abstract

Strokes can significantly affect the autonomy and the ability of the patient to feed properly. Malnutrition after strokes increases the length of stay in hospital, increases mortality and aggravates disability. Nutritional support is a therapeutic that can be useful in the management of strokes and during the rehabilitation period. It may help to reduce the occurrence of complications due to the physical dependence associated with this condition. The objective of our study was to evaluate, through a questionnaire, the opinion of prescribing doctors working in the Department of Neurology of The FANN National Teaching Hospital in Dakar. The interest of the question resides in the fact that the Center does not have a dedicated nutritionist for inpatients. This was an opinion poll about their concerns about the nutritional status of patients in the therapeutic projects they propose during the stroke. The type of the chosen opinion poll was elementary, type random. The questionnaire was individual and consisted of five items of single-response and multiple-choice questions. The results of this study reveal that while the nutritional status of patients with limited autonomy in the service was a concern in the intentions of the prescribers, in practice it was not taken into account in therapeutic projects. To date, no structured protocol is available in cases of proven nutritional deterioration in patients. Nutritional management must be integrated into the overall management of Neurology patients, particularly in elderly victims of strokes.

  • State University of Maringa, Brazil
  • Title:Juvenile Physical and Psychological Stress has Opposite Effects on the Hippocampus of Adult Rats - Unsuccessful and Successful Adaptation
  • Time :

Abstract

Studies point out that predictable stress models with a short time duration do not lead to a toxic effect, on the contrary, they cause adaptation and can collaborate to elucidate the mechanisms of resilience. This study investigated the long-term behavioral and neuroanatomical effects in two low-stress models (psychological and physical) experienced in the early phase. Male Wistar rats (n=42) were arranged into three groups: Control (C), Physical Stress (Restraint) e Psychological Stress (Predator-Cat). As juvenile (P25 to P27), each group was submitted to the respective stress model, and their behavior was analyzed on P60. The Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test was used to verify the anxiety-like behavior exhibited by the rats, and Novel Object Preference Task was used to verify their memory in three different instants: after 15 minutes (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3). On P80, after perfusion, their brains were prepared and the sections were processed to verify the hippocampus volume which were analyzed through the Nissl staining method, and the hippocampus’ dendritic spine in their regions CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) was analyzed through Golgi-Cox.
The data obtained in the EPM revealed no effect on exploration in the open and closed arm and anxiety index, thus suggesting resistance to develop anxious behavior in both types of stresses. Regarding their cognitive behavior, there was no significant effect on the rats’ performance in the memory tests, in all tests T1, T2, and T3, therefore suggesting that both types of stresses had no long-term impact.
The neuroanatomical analysis revealed that there was no change in the volume of the hippocampus, this result was obtained by analyzing the surface area of the neurons layer in the regions CA1, CA3, as well as DG. However, the analysis of dendritic spines revealed a pattern of biological responses: while the Physical Stress decreased the dendritic spines’ density, the Psychological Stress increased it, in comparison to the control group. These effects were observed in three analyzed regions, CA1, CA3, and DG hipocampus’. Our data suggest that physical stress has a negative long-term effect, whereas, the psychological stress causes effect considered a successful adaptation, and the next question is answer why.

Biography

Dr.Silvana Regina de Melo (Neuroanatomy- State University of Maringa -Brazil) since 1991,she received the Ph.D in Biological Science from State University of São Paulo (Brazil), a Post-doc position in Neuroscience from University of Lethbridge (Canada), and Philipps-Universität Marburg (Germany).The main research activities are in the fields about brain plasticity relatet to stress and resilience.

  • Instituto de Investigation Medica M y M Ferreyra, INIMECCONICET, Argentina
  • Title:PERK Signaling Mediates Neurite Atrophy and Apoptosis in a GM2-Gangliosidosis
  • Time :

Abstract

GM2-gangliosidosis, a subgroup of lysosomal storage disorders, is caused by deficiency of hexosaminidase activity, and comprises the closely related TaySachs and Sandhoff diseases. The enzyme deficiency prevents normal metabolization of ganglioside GM2, usually resulting in progressive neurodegenerative disease. The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular processes. A disturbance of any of these functions imposes stress to the ER and subsequently leads to accumulation of unfolded protein in the lumen organelar. This condition activates a signal transduction pathway called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) that attempts to restore homeostasis in the ER, but if the stress persists the signaling switches and induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms whereby GM2 accumulation in neurons triggers neurodegeneration remain unclear. We found that ganglioside GM2 accumulation in the ER induce decrease in the luminal Ca2+ content. This in turn activate PERK (protein kinase RNA [PKR]-like ER kinase) signaling, one of UPR branches, which shows two phases: one acute,
where the cytoprotective calcineurin is up regulated, and another where is enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Moreover, we present evidence showing that pharmacological as
well as molecular modulation of PERK signaling changes the vulnerability of neurons to undergo neurite atrophy and apoptosis.

Biography

Dr . Mariana Bollo graduated as a Microbiologist at the National University of Rio IV,Argentina and obtained her Ph.D. in Biology Sciences at the same University in 2003. Then, she was a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), USA. She is currently Associate Researcher (Faculty e.q.) of the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Argentina. Her laboratory focuses on understanding the signaling pathway underlying the calcium regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum perturbation and its relationship to pathological conditions. One specific area of research is an investigation of the underlying protective mechanisms mediated by Calcineurin β and moderated cytosolic Ca2+ rise after brain injury. A second area of research focused on the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in change the susceptibility of neurons to undergo apoptosis in GM2-gangliosidosis.

  • University of San Martín, Argentina
  • Title:
  • Time :

Abstract

Depression affects hundreds of people. Despite its complex etiology, it is accepted that chronic stress is a key factor in its onset. Since stress main effects occur in the brain, an inaccessible area, we focused in detecting stress molecules in peripheral fluids such as blood or saliva. We have shown that the neural glycoprotein M6a can be detected in serum. M6a contributes to the neuronal plasticity promoting neurite and filopodium growth
and synaptogenesis (Alfonso 2004, Brocco 2010, Formoso 2016). Next, we demonstrated that M6a is carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are delivered by cells in physiological and pathological conditions, can be isolated from almost all fluids and are used in the diagnosis of several diseases. Then, we showed that M6a-carrying EVs, but not EVs without M6a, induced a phenotypical change in COS-7 cells observed as filopodium formation. This indicates that M6a coupled to EVs might participate in cellular communication and contribute to cellular plasticity maintenance. Since M6a has also been related to several neuropsychiatric disorders, we studied serum M6a levels in chronically stressed animals. We found that stress altered M6a levels in blood. Thus, we proposed M6a as a putative stress biomarker (Monteleone, 2017). Furthermore, using patient saliva samples we showed that M6a levels positively correlated with the scores for the perceived stress scale in individuals diagnosed with depression. This reinforces the idea of M6a as a stress-responsive protein whose levels changes when the individual experiences stress. In addition, saliva samples of depressed patients treated with classic antidepressants (SRI) or with benzodiazepines differed in their M6a levels with respect to untreated patients. This suggests a potential use of M6a for evaluation of antidepressant treatment efficacy (Monteleone 2020). These findings encourage us to continue the study of M6a as a putative stress biomarker and also to determine if EVs can per se be messengers of the stress signal.

Biography

Dr Melisa Monteleone is an Argentinian molecular biologist. She is a researcher from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET) at the Institute for Research in Biotechnology in the Neurobiology of Stress laboratory from the University of San Martin (UNSAM). She obtained her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biotechnology from the UNSAM and received a postdoctoral training with Dr Alberto Frasch in the field of neurobiology. She has centered her research on the role of chronic stress, prenatal and during adulthood, on individual genetics, epigenetics and behavioral alterations and how these effects could be detected in a simple way using extracellular vesicles. She is also a teaching assistant in the B.Sc. career of UNSAM and a member of the B.Sc. student tutoring and mentoring committee.

  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, USA
  • Title:A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Childhood Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccination and Seizures
  • Time :

Abstract

Measles is a highly contagious rash illness that was estimated to annually infect about 500,000 Americans with about 1,000 persons developing encephalitis with permanent brain damage prior to routine measles vaccination. Starting in the late 1980s/early 1990s, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was routinely recommended for administration to American children at 12 through 15 months. A comprehensive meta-analysis by the Cochrane Review examined MMR vaccine safety. It was identified that the onset of febrile seizures was significantly increased from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination in children 12 to 23 months, but post-marketing MMR safety studies were inadequate. As a result, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD) was undertaken to examine the onset of new seizures from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The IHRD is composed of non-identifiable healthcare records generated from the Florida Medicaid system. A vaccinated cohort of 23,486 children continuously enrolled in the IRHD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving at least one dose of MMR vaccination between 12 through 16 months, and not diagnosed with a seizure prior to their first MMR vaccination was examined. An unvaccinated cohort of 41,725 children continuously enrolled in the IHRD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving no doses of measles-containing vaccines, and were not diagnosed with a seizure prior to 12 months of age was examined. Cox proportional hazards ratio and time-trend models post-MMR vaccination compared to unvaccinated persons and in a self-controlled case-series revealed the incidence rate of an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination and the incidence rate of an eventual seizure disorder among those with an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination were significantly increased in all analyses undertaken. About 1 in 3,100 MMR vaccines administered to children from 12 through 16 months were attributably associated with a seizure disorder diagnosis following an initial seizure episode with an onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The observed rate of seizure disorder diagnosis post-MMR vaccination is estimated to be a > 80% reduction as compared to natural measles infection. Further, a recent long-term longitudinal cohort study of American children in the IHRD revealed that childhood MMR vaccination reduced the rate of diagnosed measles by 80% to 90%. On balance, despite the adverse neurological effects post-MMR vaccination, the routine childhood MMR vaccination program in the US is an important and effective means to control natural measles infection, but on rare occasions is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorder.

Biography

Dr. Mark R. Geier received a BS in zoology, a PhD in genetics, and a MD from the George Washington University and is a Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology. He was a research scientist in the Laboratory of General and Comparative Biochemistry at the National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health for 10 years. He was an assistant professor in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and an assistant research professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the Uniformed School of the Health Sciences. He practiced clinical medicine for more than 30 years. He has coauthored more than 200 publications in academic journals and medical textbook chapters and been an invited presenter at numerous prestigious academic conferences around the world. He was an accredited participant on behalf of the accredited non-governmental organization, CoMeD, Inc, at multiple intergovernmental negotiating committee meetings of the United Nations Environmental Programme to help prepare a global legally binding treaty on mercury, the “Minamata Convention on Mercury”, to help reduce global human mercury exposure and harm. He is the co-founder and currently co-director of the nonprofit Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc.

  • Institute of Chronic Illnesses, USA
  • Title:A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Childhood Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccination and Seizures
  • Time :

Abstract

Measles is a highly contagious rash illness that was estimated to annually infect about 500,000 Americans with about 1,000 persons developing encephalitis with permanent brain damage prior to routine measles vaccination. Starting in the late 1980s/early 1990s, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was routinely recommended for administration to American children at 12 through 15 months. A comprehensive meta-analysis by the Cochrane Review examined MMR vaccine safety. It was identified that the onset of febrile seizures was significantly increased from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination in children 12 to 23 months, but post-marketing MMR safety studies were inadequate. As a result, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of children within the Independent Healthcare Research Database (IHRD) was undertaken to examine the onset of new seizures from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The IHRD is composed of non-identifiable healthcare records generated from the Florida Medicaid system. A vaccinated cohort of 23,486 children continuously enrolled in the IRHD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving at least one dose of MMR vaccination between 12 through 16 months, and not diagnosed with a seizure prior to their first MMR vaccination was examined. An unvaccinated cohort of 41,725 children continuously enrolled in the IHRD from birth until 10 years-old, receiving no doses of measles-containing vaccines, and were not diagnosed with a seizure prior to 12 months of age was examined. Cox proportional hazards ratio and time-trend models post-MMR vaccination compared to unvaccinated persons and in a self-controlled case-series revealed the incidence rate of an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination and the incidence rate of an eventual seizure disorder among those with an initial seizure episode with onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination were significantly increased in all analyses undertaken. About 1 in 3,100 MMR vaccines administered to children from 12 through 16 months were attributably associated with a seizure disorder diagnosis following an initial seizure episode with an onset of symptoms from 6 to 11 days post-MMR vaccination. The observed rate of seizure disorder diagnosis post-MMR vaccination is estimated to be a > 80% reduction as compared to natural measles infection. Further, a recent long-term longitudinal cohort study of American children in the IHRD revealed that childhood MMR vaccination reduced the rate of diagnosed measles by 80% to 90%. On balance, despite the adverse neurological effects post-MMR vaccination, the routine childhood MMR vaccination program in the US is an important and effective means to control natural measles infection, but on rare occasions is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorder.

Biography
Dr.David A. Geier received a BA in biology and a minor in history from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). He undertook graduate studies at the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences at the National Institutes of Health and at the George Washington University. He has coauthored more than 150 publications in academic journals and medical textbook chapters and been an invited presenter at numerous prestigious academic conferences around the world. He was an accredited participant on behalf of the accredited non-governmental organization, CoMeD, Inc, at multiple intergovernmental negotiating committee meetings of the United Nations Environmental Programme to help prepare a global legally binding treaty on mercury, the “Minamata Convention on Mercury”, to help reduce global human mercury exposure and harm. He is the co-founder and currently co-director of the non-profit Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc.

  • Tel Aviv University, Israel
  • Title:A New Homozygous HERC1 Gain-of-Function Variant in MDFPMR Syndrome Leads to mTORC1 Hyperactivation and Reduced Autophagy During Cell Catabolism.
  • Time :

Abstract:
The giant 532 kDa HERC1 protein is a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with tuberous sclerosis complex subunit 2 (TSC2), a negative upstream regulator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). TSC2 regulates anabolic cell growth through its influence on protein synthesis, cell growth, proliferation, autophagy, and differentiation. TSC subunit 1 (TSC1) stabilizes TSC2 by inhibiting the interaction between TSC2 and HERC1, forming a TSC1-TSC2 complex that negatively regulates mTORC1. HERC1-TSC2 interaction destabilizes and degrades TSC2. Recessive mutations in HERC1 have been reported in patients with intellectual disability. Some patients exhibit epilepsy, macrocephaly, somatic overgrowth, and dysmorphic facial features as well. Here we describe two sisters from a consanguineous marriage with a novel homozygous missense variant in the C-terminal HECT domain of HERC1 [chr15:g63,907,989C>G GRCh37.p11 | c.14,072G>C NM_003922 | p.(Arg4,691Pro)]. Symptoms compris global developmental delay, macrocephaly, somatic overgrowth, intellectual disability, seizures, schizoaffective disorder, and pyramidal tract signs. We functionally assessed the HERC1 mutation by investigation of patient and control fibroblasts under normal and nutrient starving conditions. During catabolic state, mTORC1 activity remained high in patient fibroblasts, which stands in stark contrast to its downregulation in controls. This was corroborated by an abnormally high phosphorylation of S6K1-kinase, a direct downstream target of mTORC1, in patients. Moreover, autophagy, usually enhanced in catabolic states, was down-regulated in patient fibroblasts. These data confirm that the missense variant found in both patients results in a gain-of-function for the mutant HERC1 protein.

  • Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University , China
  • Title:Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for The Diagnosis of Neural Antibody-Mediated Epilepsy/ Seizure in Patients with New-Onset Seizure or Established Epilepsy.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Purpose: Currently, the diagnosis of neural antibody-mediated epilepsy/seizure (NAME/
S)relies heavily on neural antibody testing, which is time-consuming, costly and introduces
diagnostic delays. A statistical tool to predict the probability of a patient with NAME/S is
lacking. We aimed to construct a predictive model to help clinicians expedite the diagnostic
process.
Methods: We retrospectively recruited subjects (206 in the development group and 62 in the
validation group) with new-onset seizures or established epilepsy suspected to have presented
with antibody-mediated seizures between January 2014 and December 2019. We collected
data about demographics, medical history, clinical manifestations and follow up. Binary
logistic regression was used to select potential predictors for the construction of a predictive
model. Five-fold cross and bootstrap validation were applied to avoid overfitting.
Concordance index, calibration plots and decision curve analysis were used to assess its
performance.
Results:The model, incorporating presence/absence of tumour, psychiatric/cognitive/
emotional changes, language disturbances, sensory auras, tonic-clonic seizures, multiple
seizure events, hyponatremia and MRI inflammation, was visualized as a nomogram. The
crude and adjusted concordance indices were both 0.88 with a cut-off value of 0.62,
sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 77.4%. The slope and intercept of the calibration curve
were 0 and 1, respectively. The model also showed good performance in the validation group
with a concordance index of 0.82, cut-off value of 0.33, sensitivity of 75.5% and specificity
of 73.1%. The slope was 0.86 and the intercept was 0.039. Decision curve analysis showed
that the model was useful with an optimal threshold probability of >4% in both groups.
Conclusions: Despite limitations such as sample volume and selection bias in subject
enrolment, this model may be used to estimate the individualized probability of having
NAME/S, deserving further exploration and validation.
Biography:
Dr.Wenlin Zhang He is a neurologist with an interest in the study of epilepsies. He work as an attending doctor in the department of Neurology,Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. He received his Bachelor , Master’s and PhD degree in neurology in China

  • Department of Neurological Surgery at Montefiore Medical Center, USA
  • Title:We Aim to Characterize The Incidence, Risk for Mortality, and Identify Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients Presenting With Hemorrhage and COVID-19.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included a cohort of patients admitted to one of three major hospitals of our healthcare network including, an academic medical center and comprehensive stroke center, which ac- cepts transfers for complex cases from eight community hospitals, during March 1 to May 1, 2020. All patients that received imaging of the neuroaxis and had positive PCR testing for COVID-19 were identified and reviewed by an attending neuroradiologist. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Biomarkers were recorded from the day of the hemorrhagic event. Vital signs from the day of the hemorrhagic event mechanical ventilation orders at admission were recorded. Imaging findings were divided into 5 subtypes; acute subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), multi-compartmental hemorrhage (MCH), multi-focal intracerebral hemorrhage (MFH), and focal intracerebral hemorrhage (fICH). Outcomes were recorded as non-routine dis- charge and mortality.
Results: We found a total of 35 out of 5227 patients with COVID-19 that had hemorrhage of some kind. Mortality for the entire cohort was 45.7 % (n = 16). SDH patients had a mortality rate of 35.3 % (n = 6), SAH had a mortality of 50 % (n = 1), MCH patients had a mortality of 71.4 % (n = 5), MFH patients had a mortality of 50 % (n = 2), fICH patients had a mortality of 40 % (n = 2). Patients with severe pulmonary COVID requiring mechanical ventilation (OR 10.24 [.43−243.12] p = 0.015), with INR > 1.2 on the day of the hemorrhagic event (OR 14.36 [1.69−122.14] p = 0.015], and patients presenting with spontaneous vs. traumatic hemor- rhage (OR 6.11 [.31−118.89] p = 0.023) had significantly higher risk for mortality.
Conclusions: Hemorrhagic presentations with COVID-19 are a rare but serious way in which the illness can manifest. It is important for neurosurgeons to realize that patients can present with these findings without primary pulmonary symptoms, and that severe pulmonary symptoms, elevated INR, and spontaneous hemor- rhagic presentations is associated with increased risk for mortality.
Biography:
Dr. David Altschul, MD: Chief of Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery, Leo M. Davidoff Department of Neurological Surgery at Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Surgical Director of the Advanced Comprehensive Stroke Center at Montefiore Health System

  • Department of Neurology, USA
  • Title:Astrocyte-Microglia Interaction in a Mouse Model of Neuromyelitis Optica.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory autoimmune CNS disorder triggered by binding
of an IgG autoantibody to the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) water channel on astrocytes. Activation of cytolytic
complement has been implicated as the major effector of tissue destruction that secondarily involves
myelin. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms that precede the cytolytic astrocyte-centered
lesion of NMO are largely unknown. We investigated early precytolytic events in the evolving
pathophysiology of NMO in mice by continuously infusing IgG (NMO patient serum–derived or AQP4-
specific mouse monoclonal), without exogenous complement, into the spinal subarachnoid space.
Using this novel mouse model of NMO, we found that motor impairment and sublytic NMOcompatible immunopathology were IgG dose dependent and AQP4 dependent. By selectively deleting
microglia, we demonstrated an unanticipated central role for microglia in NMO pathogenesis that
involves early complement component signaling. In vivo spinal cord imaging revealed a striking
physical interaction between microglia and astrocytes that required signalling from astrocytes by the
C3a fragment of their upregulated complement C3 protein. Astrocytes remained viable but lost AQP4.
Furthermore, despite astrocyte activation and AQP4 downregulation by NMO-IgG, microglial activation
and interaction with astrocytes, and motor impairment were attenuated in mice lacking C3aR.
Therefore, previously unappreciated crosstalk between astrocytes and microglia involving earlyactivated CNS-intrinsic complement components and microglial C3a receptor signaling appears to be a
critical driver of the precytolytic phase in the evolving NMO lesion, including initial motor impairment.
Our study highlights the role of astrocyte-microglia interaction in NMO and suggests microglia as a
therapeutic target in the treatment of NMO.
Biography:
Dr. Long-Jun Wu received his PhD of Neurobiology from University of Science and Technology of China in 2004. He did his postdoc trainings at University of Toronto (2004-2008) and Harvard Medical School (2008-2011). He was an Instructor at Harvard Medical School (2011-2012) and then an Assistant Professor at Rutgers University (2012-2016). Currently, he is Professor and Consultant at Department
of Neurology, Mayo Clinic. His research focuses on the neuroimmune interaction, particularly the function of microglia, in normal and diseased brain. He has published more than 130 peerreviewed articles, including those in Nature Neuroscience, Neuron, Science Translational Medicine, Nature Communications, Journal of Clinical Investigation, PNAS, PLoS Biology, eLife, Cell Reports, Journal of Neuroscience, etc. His work is impactful in the field with more than 9000 citations and H index of 50 in Google Scholar (03/2021). He serves as a standing member for NIH CMBG study section and ad hoc reviewer for three other study sections. He is an Associate Editor for Frontiers of Neuroscience, Molecular Brain, Neuroscience Bulletin, and he is also served in editorial boards for a number of journals including Glia, Brain Behavior and Immunity, Molecular Pain, Neural Plasticity etc.

  • Institute of Biotechnology, Czechia.
  • Title:Requirements for SOX2 in Early Neurosensory Development
  • Time :

Abstract

SOX2 is essential for maintaining neurosensory stem cell properties and it is involved in the early neurosensory development, in particular the brain and various sensory organs. SOX2 acts by maintaining an undifferentiated pro-neurosensory cell state that allows for proliferation in various developmental systems. SOX2 plays multiple roles in neuronal, sensory, and non-sensory development. At present, it is unclear how SOX2 achieves all these different functions. Interactions of SOX2 with other transcription factors likely represent a potential mechanism allowing for different roles of SOX2 in development. Several transcription factors have been shown to cooperate with SOX2 in different cell lineages, including C-MYC, Pax6, EYA1, SIX1, and CHD7. Additionally, the involvement of SOX2 in the early neurosensory development of cranial placodes remains unclear. To address this, we conditionally deleted Sox2 during eye, ear, and olfactory placode development. Early deletion of Sox2 eradicates all olfactory placode development, and disrupts retinal development and invagination of the lens placode. In contrast to the lens and olfactory placodes, the ear placode invaginates and delaminates NEUROD1 positive neurons. Furthermore, we show that SOX2 is not necessary for early ear neurogenesis, since the early inner ear ganglion is formed with near normal central projections to the hindbrain and peripheral projections to the undifferentiated sensory epithelia of the inner ear.

Biography

Dr. Gabriela Pavlinkova received her Ph.D. in Immunology in 2000 from Charles University, Prague, Czechia. After a postdoctoral training at University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA, she was appointed Assistant Professor at University of Nebraska Medical Center, USA in 2005. Since 2008, she is Head of Laboratory of Molecular Pathogenetics, Institute of Biotechnology Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia.

Research interest

My main research interest is to understand molecular aspects of neuronal development. I am focused on genetic mutations affecting transcriptional regulation during embryonic development, the molecular mechanisms of developmental programming, and identification of the molecular causes of abnormal embryonic development and disease predispositions.

  • The Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Egypt
  • Title:Successful Oral Treatment of Third Cranial Nerve Palsy and Optc Neurits from Neglected Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Patentt
  • Time :

Abstract

Purpose: Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral erupton caused by the reactvaton of varicella zoster virus (VZV), a herpes virus causing chicken pox in children. We aimed to report a 3- month neglected case of acute herpes zoster-induced third nerve palsy and optc neurits, followed by a late-onset keratouveits in an immunocompetent young adult.
Observations: A 36-year old immunocompetent Egyptan male patent presented with 3- month complaints of blurred vision and drooping of his lef upper eyelid that appeared 4 days after a herpetc rash. He had been diagnosed with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) of the lef eye. However, he had not received any systemic antviral treatment. The patent had an abnormal head posture with post-eruptve scars on the lef forehead and the nose tp. Examinaton revealed weakness of elevation and adducton, partal ptosis, and mid-dilated non-reactve pupil in the lef eye. A relatve afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) was present in the affected eye. His blood sugar and blood pressure were within normal limits. Contrast magnetc resonance imaging (MRI) showed no space-occupying lesion. However, there were
enhancement and enlargement of the lef optc nerve on T1-weighted images, denotng optc neurits. A diagnosis of acute lef third nerve palsy with pupil involvement and optc neurits secondary to HZO was made. Despite late treatment with oral acyclovir and prednisolone, the patent recovered. One and a half months later, he developed a late-onset
keratouveits about 8 months afer the rash onset. Afer the resoluton of the episode, oral acyclovir was contnued at a prophylactc dose (444 mg BID).
Conclusions aod importance: HZ is a rare cause of third nerve palsy with pupil involvement and optic neurits. Oral acyclovir and steroids were effective in the delayed treatment in this case. Abnormal optc nerve enhancement on MRI 3 months afer the appearance of vesicular rash may suggest chronic HZ activity. Concurrent optic neurits and third cranial nerve palsy in the absence of other signs of orbital apex syndrome can be seen in cases of HZO. Regular follow-up of patents with HZ is important for detectng recurrence and initatng prompt treatment.

Biography

Dr. Samah Ahmed Osman.She is a Consultant in Ophthalmology. She had obtained her Bachelor degree in Medicine and Surgery from the faculty of Medicine of Alexandria University in Egypt. She worked in French hospitals as a resident in Emergency & Surgery departments for one and half year. She returned home and she had obtained a Master degree in General Surgery from the faculty of Medicine of Cairo University. As she was always passionate about Ophthalmology, she made a ‘career shif’, and she had obtained a diploma in Ophthalmology from the faculty of Medicine of El Azhar University, as a second specialty. She believe in contnual learning and practcing in Medicine. Therefore, she joined The Egyptan Fellowship training program in Ophthalmology for 4 years. She had practced in specialized ophthalmology insttutes in several subspecialty departments. She had obtained The Fellowship of The Egyptan Board of Ophthalmology [FEBO]. She also succeeded in the examinatons of part 2 of The Fellowship of The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (FRCS) of Glasgow. She intend to take the examinatons of part 3 FRCS (Glasgow) next year.She took many visitor posts in The Research Insttute of Ophthalmology in Strabismus, Oculoplastcs, and Vitreo-Retnal departments. She is honored to have her frst publicaton (this case report) in The Americao Jouroal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. She work in a private clinic.

  • Southern Illinois University Carbondale, USA
  • Title:Frontal Volume as a Potential Source of the Comorbidity Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disorders
  • Time :

Abstract

Prefrontal volume reductions commonly are demonstrated in ADHD, but the literature examining prefrontal volume in reading disorders (RD) is scant despite their also having executive functioning (EF) deficits. Furthermore, only a few anatomical studies have examined the frontal lobes in comorbid RD/ADHD, even though they have EF deficits similar to RD and ADHD. Hence, we examined frontal gyri volume in children with RD, ADHD, RD/ADHD and controls, as well as their relationship to EF for gyri found to differ between groups. We found right inferior frontal (RIF) volume was smaller in ADHD, and smaller volume was related to worse behavioral regulation. Left superior frontal (LSF) volume was larger in RD than ADHD, and its size was negatively related to basic reading ability. Left middle frontal (LMF) volume was the largest in RD/ADHD overall. Further, its volume was not related to basic reading nor behavioral regulation but was related to worse attentional control, suggesting some specificity in EF relationships. When examining hypotheses on the etiology of RD/ADHD, RD/ADHD was commensurate to ADHD in RIF volume and both RD and ADHD in LSF volume (being midway between the groups), consistent with the multiple deficit/common deficit etiology hypothesis. Nevertheless, they also had an additional gyrus affected: LMF, consistent with the cognitive subtype hypothesis in its specificity to RD/ADHD. The few other frontal aMRI studies on RD/ADHD supported both hypotheses as well. For example, when we conducted a whole-brain VBM analysis on this data, we found clusters of reduced volume in the left precentral cortex in RD, various bilateral prefrontal regions in ADHD, and left medial and middle frontal gyri in RD/ADHD versus controls, along with other non-frontal regions. For all three clinical groups, clusters of smaller volume were found in the right superior frontal gyrus and striate (caudate) versus controls, being potential sources of shared etiology contributing to the RD/ADHD comorbidity. Given this, future research should continue to focus on frontal morphology in its endeavors to find neurobiological contributors to the comorbidity between RD and ADHD. Moreover, VBM and tracing were shown to be complementary, in that shared and dissimilar regions were demonstrated between the two methods, suggesting that both should continue to be used in research.

Biography
Dr. Kibby is a Full Professor in the Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Clinical Psychology programs within the School of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Her expertise include clinical child neuropsychology and developmental cognitive neuroscience. She studies shared and dissimilar contributors to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially reading disorders and ADHD.She and her lab have presented ~ 200 posters at national and international conferences, and she is a frequent invited speaker. She has 30 peer-reviewed publications as well as various book chapters. She also has received two grants from NIH that have supported her MRI work.

  • University of Concepción, Chile
  • Title:Covered-Stent Treatment of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a 3 Years-Old Child with 12-years Follow-up. Case Report.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Introduction: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms in children, although uncommon, are life-threatening. Covered stents are a good alternative treatment, as they avoid the risk of open surgery and preserve the internal carotid artery. Long- term outcomes were unknown until recently. Report: In August 2008, a 3-years-old child was treated with a covered stent for a pseudoaneurysm in the extracranial ICA. A long-term follow up is presented. Results: The child was discharged with full recovery and without neurological sequelae. He has been followed-up and has remained asymptomatic for 12 years, with CTA- confirmed internal carotid artery patency, without deformation or evidence of significant re- stenosis. Conclusion: This the first report of the long-term outcome of a covered stent in a child treated at 3 years of age, with a 12-year follow-up. The good performance of the covered stent in this case reinforces its adoption as a first-line option in the treatment of extracranial ICA pseudoaneurysms in children.
Biography:
Dr. Roberto Sánchez, MD Professor of Surgery,Faculty of Medicine- University of Concepción- CHILE Fellow of the American College of Surgeons,Former Foreign Resident of Paris Hospitals,Foreign Associate Member Society of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of French Language (SCVE),Non-European Membership European Society of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (ESVS)

  • Cairo University, Egypt.
  • Title:A DPP-1 Inhibitor Ameliorates Neurodegeneration in Aluminium Chloride Induced Alzheimer’s Disease Rats via Acting on Klotho, AKT/ERK and JAK/STAT Signalling Pathways.
  • Time :

Abstract:
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders contributing the majority of dementia cases worldwide. The main pathologic hallmarks of AD are senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in addition to several molecular factors like neuroinflammation and increased oxidative. Klotho is an antiaging protein expressed by hippocampal neurons and plays a strikingly antioxidant, anti-inflammatory role. Klotho deficiency has been associated with hippocampal neurodegeneration and memory deficits together with elevated oxidative stress. Gliptins have been shown to dampen neurodegeneration via modulating glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. This peptide, acting on GLP-1R in the brain, exerts central anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. We have previously reported the neuroprotective effects of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor in two different models of dementia and cognitive decline induced by high fat high fructose alone or with aluminium chloride (AlCl3) administration via enhancing klotho expression and activating its downstream signaling pathways. In the present study, we investigated the favorable effects of vildagliptin in a rat model of AD induced by AlCl3 oral administration alone (100 mg/kg/day) for 60 days. Rats were orally treated with Vildagliptin (10 mg/kg) for 60 days along with AlCl3 administration. Vildagliptin treatment enhanced general activities together with spatial memory and learning in open field test and morris water maze (MWM) test respectively. A significant increase of both hippocampal klotho expression along with an increase in its downstream effectors AKT and ERK phosphorylation with an inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway were observed. These results were evidenced by an increase in hippocampal Bcl-2 expression and a decrease in hippocampal BAX expression which were subsequently accomplished with reduction in contents of inflammatory, apoptotic and oxidative stress biomarkers as TNF-α, caspase-3 and FOXO1. These findings confirm the neuroprotective role of vildagliptin is via enhancing Klotho protein expression together with activating AKT and ERK pathway and conversely inhibiting JAK/STAT pathway.

Biography:
Dr.Rasha Refaat Yossef
Part-Time assistant lecturer at pharmacology and toxicology department, Faculty of pharmacy, October 6 university, Giza, Egypt.
She did Master’s degree of Pharmaceutical Science, pharmacology and toxicology, faculty of pharmacy, Cairo university, Cairo, Egypt, 2020.Diploma of pharmacology and toxicology, faculty of pharmacy, Cairo university, Cairo, Egypt, 2009.
Bachelor of pharmaceutical science, faculty of pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 2006.

  • Department of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Sciences,USA
  • Title:The role of gut microbes in altering susceptibility for the development of stroke
  • Time :

Abstract:

Clinical studies report an association between the gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and both risk of stroke and its adverse outcomes. However, experimental studies have yet to directly demonstrate a contribution of gut microbes to cerebral vascular diseases including stroke. In this presentation, we show that gut microbiota directly impact host susceptibility to stroke, and adverse outcomes following stroke, through the dietary choline, gut microbiota, TMAO pathway. In initial gnotobiotic mouse stroke model studies, fecal microbial transplantation into germ-free recipient mice from low versus high TMAO-producing human donors was shown to transmit capacity for TMAO generation and significantly impact stroke severity. Next, employing independent murine stroke models with conventional mice, we showed that dietary supplementation with either choline or TMAO enhanced both cerebral infarct size and post-stroke functional deficits. Finally, in additional gnotobiotic transplantation studies employing a synthetic microbial community lacking choline to trimethylamine (TMA) transforming activity ± genetically engineered human commensals (wild-type versus ΔcutC mutant), we show that harboring a functional gut microbial cutC gene is sufficient to transmit enhanced TMA(O) production, exacerbate cerebral infarct size and functional deficits within a host. Collectively, these studies reveal that gut microbiota in general, and the TMAO pathway specifically, directly impacts host susceptibility for stroke and its adverse functional outcomes.

  • USA Jersey Shore University Medical Center,USA
  • Title:Cytokine Storm Induced New Onset Depression In Patients With COVID-19. A New Look Into the Association Between Depression And Cytokines—Two Case Reports
  • Time :

Abstract :
Background: Depression appears to be a common complication in patients during and post-COVID-19 infection. Understanding the mechanism of action of cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin10 and others in depression and in cytokine storm syndrome, the core component of COVID-19, could shine a new light on future treatment options for both disorders.
Objective: This review demonstrates the role of interleukins in COVID-19 pathogenesis and their role in depression.
Results: We describe cases we have treat3ed as an example for the dual role interleukins have in COVID-19 infection and depression and reviewed approximately 70 articles focusing on the role of interleukins in cytokine storm syndrome and depression
Conclusion: This review highlights the key features of cytokines in both diseases. As the scientific community has more time to recover and process the effect of the current pandemic, we believe that additional research will pave the way to diverse pathways to treat depression in these patients and others.

Biography :
Dr. Orna Alpert is a psychiatrist who specializes in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychosomatic Medicine. She treat children and adults with depression disorder, PTSD, delirium, somatization and drug and alcohol addiction. Her specialty involves the evaluation and treatment of patients with co-morbid medical illness and psychiatric symptoms. She have a special interest in organ transplantation and worked at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and Yale-New Haven Hospital with liver, kidney and heart transplant candidates. During her time at the Medical College of Wisconsin, she was director of transplant services.As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, She focused on patients who exhibited complications such as delirium, depression and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Most of her work in recent years has focused on Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry or Psychosomatic Medicine. She remain active academically and continue to publish and give lectures.She recently received the honor of becoming a Fellow of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry.

  • Department of Bioinformatics,Germany
  • Title:A combined approach to discovering drug repurposing candidates targeting Alzheimer pathophysiology
  • Time :

Abstract
Aims
The high number of failed pre-clinical and clinical studies for compounds targeting Alzheimer disease (AD) has demonstrated that there is a need to reassess existing strategies. Here, we pursue a holistic, mechanism-centric drug repurposing approach combining computational analytics and experimental screening data. The main objective of our joint approach is to suggest highly relevant drug repurposing candidates for testing in clinical trials in the context of AD.

Method
We combine drug-target information with knowledge graphs that represent essential pathophysiology mechanisms. The resulting Human Brain PHARMACOME (HBP) embeds all relevant drug-target interactions in the context of a massive collection of computable disease mechanisms underlying Alzheimer disease.

Results
To demonstrate its utility, we used the HBP to identify upstream controllers of posttranslational modification of the tau protein, with a strong focus on phosphorylated Tau (pTau), one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease. Interestingly, HDAC6 was identified as one of the pleiotropic regulators controlling posttranslational modification of tau. In a dedicated drug repurposing (DR) approach, we established a HDAC6-tau assay and screened a repurposing library consisting of 5632 approved drugs for compounds that modulate Tau phosphorylation. We identified, profiled and validated 20 compounds that indeed modify pTau through HDAC6. Four compounds, and their known targets, were found to have a link to AD specific genes.

Conclusion
We identified new drug-target combinations and provided mechanistic explanations that help to improve our understanding of AD pathology and support future development of effective therapeutic strategies.

Biography
Dr. Vanessa Lage-Rupprecht a research scientist at Fraunhofer SCAI Bioinformatics. After her Diploma in Biology at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Bonn (Germany), she received her PhD in Experimental Neurophysiology at the University Hospital Bonn and continued her research in cellular neuroscience at McGovern Medical School (Houston, USA) and the University of Regensburg (Germany). At Fraunhofer SCAI Bioinformatics She work in the field of Applied Semantics and operate as a bridge builder between biomedical domains and informatics implementation strategies with focus on interoperability of data and knowledge.

  • Clinique SACCADE, Canada
  • Title:The Development of Consciousness in Autism
  • Time :

Abstract:
Research on the neuronal and cognitive development of the human brain is increasingly making it possible to clarify the neural substrates associated with a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. While such studies improve our understanding of the nature of these disorders, it nevertheless remains a challenge in autism research to understand the reasons for the heterogeneity of autistic profiles and how the varied characteristics of autism may be related to one another.
The Internal Structure of Autistic Thought hypothesis (referred to as the FISPA hypothesis, FISPA being the French acronym for Fonctionnement interne de la structure de pensée autistique) proposes that the condition of autism should fundamentally be considered a neurodevelopmental consciousness disorder. The early atypical connectivity of structural and functional brain networks known in autism could affect the development of functional and integrative neural systems that allow access to consciousness, namely the global neuronal workspace and the default network.
The FISPA hypothesis was developed from the experiential expertise of an autistic individual, Brigitte Harrisson, a social worker and autism specialist, and she and her team’s clinical observations of autistic individuals. Ms. Harrisson argues that developmental disturbances in the integrative neural systems could affect the ability to consciously process and integrate information about oneself and one’s environment from birth. An ensuing developmental cascade would then lead to a spectrum of alterations in the chronological stages of consciousness development, from body consciousness to environmental perception to self-awareness to the theory of mind, and finally, to meta-consciousness. According to the FISPA hypothesis, an autistic person may have to exert continuous cognitive effort as well as occasionally exhibit certain repetitive movements to engage the conscious processing of information.
Biography:
Isabelle Tremblay holds a master’s degree in psychology with a specialization in neuropsychology from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR). Ms. Tremblay garnered her expertise in differential diagnoses for children, adolescents, and adults with autism from her years of experience working in rehabilitation centers, hospitals, and alongside child psychiatrists. As well as being a member of SACCADE’s team of instructors, she also coordinates research projects aimed at scientifically validating the SACCADE™ model. Ms. Tremblay was a contributor to the recent scientific paper “Autism as a neurodevelopmental consciousness disorder according to the Internal structure of autistic thought hypothesis (FISPA)” published by St-Charles Bernier et al. (2022).

  • Clinique SACCADE, Canada
  • Title:The Development of Consciousness in Autism
  • Time :

Abstract:
Research on the neuronal and cognitive development of the human brain is increasingly making it possible to clarify the neural substrates associated with a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. While such studies improve our understanding of the nature of these disorders, it nevertheless remains a challenge in autism research to understand the reasons for the heterogeneity of autistic profiles and how the varied characteristics of autism may be related to one another.
The Internal Structure of Autistic Thought hypothesis (referred to as the FISPA hypothesis, FISPA being the French acronym for Fonctionnement interne de la structure de pensée autistique) proposes that the condition of autism should fundamentally be considered a neurodevelopmental consciousness disorder. The early atypical connectivity of structural and functional brain networks known in autism could affect the development of functional and integrative neural systems that allow access to consciousness, namely the global neuronal workspace and the default network.
The FISPA hypothesis was developed from the experiential expertise of an autistic individual, Brigitte Harrisson, a social worker and autism specialist, and she and her team’s clinical observations of autistic individuals. Ms. Harrisson argues that developmental disturbances in the integrative neural systems could affect the ability to consciously process and integrate information about oneself and one’s environment from birth. An ensuing developmental cascade would then lead to a spectrum of alterations in the chronological stages of consciousness development, from body consciousness to environmental perception to self-awareness to the theory of mind, and finally, to meta-consciousness. According to the FISPA hypothesis, an autistic person may have to exert continuous cognitive effort as well as occasionally exhibit certain repetitive movements to engage the conscious processing of information.
Biography:
Dr. Catherine St-Charles Bernier is a doctor of neuropsychology (D. Psychology Laval University) and the director of clinical services at SACCADE, the Autism Center of Excellence™. Her experience with specialized and subspecialized psychiatric institutions both in Quebec and abroad (such as the CRA of Martinique) have enabled her to further develop her expertise in autism. Today, Dr. St-Charles Bernier oversees professionals in their application of the SACCADE™ model. In addition, Dr. St-Charles Bernier collaborates on the scientific component of the validation of the SACCADE™ model and interventions. She provides training and supervision to professionals in institutions throughout Quebec, France, and internationally. Dr. St-Charles Bernier taught at the Université du Québec à Rimouski (UQAR) for nearly a decade (2010-2020). She has contributed to various scientific articles (St-Charles Bernier et al., 2022; Mottron et al., 2007) as well as to projects in autism genetics

  • Ben Gurion University,Israel
  • Title:The association between specific temporomandibular disorders and cervicogenic headache
  • Time :

Abstract:

Background and aims: Upper neck signs, symptoms and hypomobility have been shown to present with a higher prevalence in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, there is currently no evidence of an association between specific TMDs and cervicogenic headache (CGH). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the odds ratio and the relative risk of CGH in patients with specific TMDs.
Method: 116 participants, including 74 patients with TMD (pain-related/intraarticular/mixed TMD) and 42 healthy controls took part in this study. The TMD diagnosis was made by senior faculty members of the Dental School according to the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, while the cervical diagnosis was made by a qualified senior physical therapist. The analysis comprised the evaluation of the odds ratio of CGH among patients with TMD and the relative risk (RR) for CGH during 14-24 months of follow-up.
Results: Significantly higher odds ratios of cervicogenic headache were found among pain-related and mixed TMD (12.17 and 10.76, respectively) versus healthy controls. During the 14-24 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference of relative risk for CGH among patients with TMD versus healthy controls.
Summary and conclusions: The results support a clear clinical association between painful TMD (pain-related and mixed TMD) and cervicogenic headache.
Keywords: Cervical pain; Cervicogenic headache; Neck pain; Orofacial pain; Temporomandibular joint.

Biography:

Dr. Tzvika Greenbaum is a Physical Therapist, a lecturer and a researcher in the field of Cervico- Cranio-Mandibular rehabilitation. He is the founder of a unique academy – “Cervico-Cranio- Mandibular Academy (CCMA)” which delivers a worldwide evidence based practical training for Physical Therapists, Dentists and MDs in this field. He is also a full-time teaching fellow in the Ben Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and a practicing clinician in the multi-disciplinary Hertzeliya Medical Center in Tel Aviv, Israel. The main vision is to lead the field of Cervico-Cranio-Mandibular rehabilitation into modern evidence-based practice by using an inter- disciplinary approach.

  • Lebedev Physical Institute Russia
  • Title:The neuro-cognitive approach to the enigma of aesthetic emotions (the effect of chef-d’oeuvre)
  • Time :

Abstract:
The nature of emotions producing by a piece of art or ‘Chef-d’oeuvre’ (so called Aesthetic Emotions, AE) is considered within the neuromorphic Natural-Constructive Cognitive Architecture (NCCA) model. Its important feature being the combination of two subsystems, the one for generation of new information, and the other for its conservation. The enigma of AE (no pragmatic motives and quite individual preferences) is shown to be entirely connected with another mystery — the “Explanatory Gap” between the concepts of “Brain” and “Mind”. Within NCCA, the “Brain” is considered as neuron records of the raw images of real objects (individual objective information), while the “Mind” refers to personal subjective information created inside the cognitive system itself (symbolic infrastructure). It is shown that AE are caused by the “recognition paradox”: an object seems both, familiar but unusual. This occurs if the “Brain” does see its subtle features, while the “Mind” does not realize. Bright AE (goosebumps) are caused by irregular excitation of implicit associations provided by weak (“gray”) connections of the “halo” neurons (simulating the subconsciousness). General formula for Chef-D’oeuvre in science and art could be expressed as “a condensed capacity to see the invisible, to combine the incompatible”.
Biography:
Olga Chernavskaya Born on 03/30/1957. Studied at the Physics Faculty of Moscow State University, Department
of Quantum Field Theory, graduated in 1980 with honors. Since 1980 has been working at
Lebedev Physical Institute, Laboratory of Elementary Particles, current position – Senior
Researcher. In 1998 she defended her thesis and received a Ph.D. degree in physics-math
sciences. Since 2011 – Member of the Interregional Association for Cognitive Research. Since
2012 – member of the Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture (BICA) society. Since 2017 –
Member of the Program Committee of IARIA confs COGNITIVE.

  • University Hospital of Málaga, Spain
  • Title:Athlete With Brain Damage: From Spasticity To Myofascial Pain
  • Time :

Abstract:
Introduction and Objectives: Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder that occurs around the time of birth. This is the case of a patient who grew up with spastic paraparesis. He reached adulthood with autonomous gait after three surgeries in which multiple tenotomies were carried out in the lower limbs. In the periods between interventions, he required periodic injections with onabotulinumtoxinA. The patient was a member of the national adaptive swimming team. He came to the clinic with a complaint of mechanical pain in the left buttock and right lumbar and abdominal regions, which had caused him to stop swimming training.
Methods: On physical examination, trigger points typical of myofascial pain syndrome were found in the following muscles: left piriformis, right quadratus lumborum, and right rectus abdominis (related to osteitis pubis due to the kick made when swimming). Pubic enthesopathy was confirmed by ultrasound, which showed increased heterogeneity with hypoechoic foci and gross calcifications in the entheses of the pubic musculature with angiogenesis. Treatment of trigger points with intramuscular onabotulinumtoxin A injections was performed.
Results: In two weeks, the patient presented with pain relief shown by a reduction in score from 8 to 4 points on the visual analogue pain scale.
Conclusions: Treatment with botulinum toxin inhibits the hypercontractility of trigger points. In this patient, the objectives evolved from improvement of the gait pattern to relief of myofascial pain syndrome related to a clinical history of spastic paraparesis and a desire to resume swimming practice.
Biography:
Paba Dotes Ana Belén finished her studies of medicine in 2017 at the University of Granada, Spain. Diploma in Sciences Business Studies from the University of Barcelona in 2004.She have been founder and member of the Scientific Review Committee of the journal Scientific Archives of University Medicine. Currently a PhD student in Biomedicine at the University of Malaga and Collaborating researcher of the group of basic neurosciences, chronicity, aging and health in IBIMA populations (Malaga Biomedicine Research Institute).
At the present time She is working as a physician specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation at the Regional University Hospital of Malaga.

  • Department of Neurosurgery, Perú
  • Title:Design and Clinical Experience of a New Flexible Cervical Implant
  • Time :

Abstract:
On present here the design process and the results of the application in the first 25 cases of a novel cervical disc implant, Flexible Cervical Implant, manufactured by digital metal 3D printing in ELI grade titanium alloy.
The implant was designed and patented by the author of the article and was evaluated from the design point as well as metallographic and mechanical in a certified materials laboratory.
Our series includes men and women in an age range from 30 to 65 years of age, with a clinical picture of uni or bilateral cervicobrachialgia or even cervical spinal cord compression diagnosed with Hernia of the Pulposus Nucleus or Degenerative Disc Disease, at one or two levels, which compressed the spinal cord, cervical roots of both and generating clinical picture.
Cases of cervical vertebral disc pathology secondary to trauma, autoimmune processes or infectious processes were excluded.
The patients evolved with relief of their symptoms and signs that motivated the surgery and without presenting intercurrences of neurological type or additional neurological infectious or involvement of the soft cervical structures.
Biography:
Dr Carlos Alvarez is a Peruvian neurosurgeon trained in the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,at Lima-Perú. Member of the Peruvian Society of Neurosurgery and also of the American Medical Association of Neurological Surgeons of USA. Author of several scientific papers and inventor of neurosurgical implants.
Nowadys, he is Head of de Department of Neurosurgery of the Clínica Alvarez.